Telecom 101

Telecommunications Textbook
TCO CTA Certification Self-Study Guide
Reference Handbook

Telecommunications training book:
• Fundamentals of Telecommunications,
• Understanding Data Communications,
• Understanding IP and Networking
Packed with information, authoritative, up to date, covering all major topics, Telecom 101 is an invaluable study guide and day-to-day reference.
Telecom 101 is based on the famous telecommunications training course
Course 101 Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineers.

More info - pricing, online ordering          
buy hard copy now from Teracom 7" x 9" softcover textbook • 488 pages • $179
ISBN 9781894887038 • 4th edition • Published March 2016
Print quantities are limited. Order today to avoid disappointment.
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ISBN 9781894887786
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Telecom 101:
To keep your purchase cost as low as possible, three books:
Fundamentals of Telecommunications,
Understanding Data Communications, and
Understanding IP and Networking
are not sold separately, but bound into a single volume Telecom 101, with 430 pages, 175 diagrams and a full index, all for one low price.

An invaluable reference
The material covers telecom, datacom and networking from A-Z, organized in logical chapters covering all major topics, and written in our signature "telecom for non-engineers" style. It will be an invaluable day-to-day handbook, either on its own, or to complement instructor and video training.

Up to date
The fourth edition, published 2016, is completely revised and updated, with complete coverage of the fundamentals plus up-to-date information on Gigabit Ethernet, CDMA and 3G cellular, DSL and Cable, Wireless LANs, IP, Voice over IP, IP VPNs and more.

Value Pricing
If sold separately, the price for these three books would be:
Fundamentals of Telecommunications: $118, plus
Understanding Data Communications: $118, plus
Understanding IP and Networking: $118
for a total of US$354 for all three books if purchased separately.

You can get all three books bound in one volume called Telecom 101 for the low price of $179.

Compare this to hunting down and paying hundreds of dollars for multiple books by different authors that may or may not cover what you need to know - in plain English - and you'll agree this is a very attractive deal.

CTA Study Manual
Telecom 101 covers the material needed to pass the Telecommunications Certification Organization Certified Telecommunications Analyst (CTA) certification.

Hurry! The print run is limited. Order today to avoid disappointment.

Table of Contents
Following is a chapter-by-chapter outline Teracomís textbooks.  The three books, Fundamentals of Telecommunications, Understanding Data Communications and Understanding IP and Networking are bound together in one volume called Telecom 101. 

Looking through this outline, youíll see that many of the chapters are actually self-contained references on subject areas such as telephony, T1, LANs, Voice over IP and many more.

Instead of having to purchase multiple books from different authors to explain each of these topics, you get them all, bound in a single volume, in a consistent style and quality, for one low price.  
Order today to obtain this invaluable reference!
Part 1: Fundamentals of Telecommunications
We begin with the fundamentals of telephony and the telephone network – the basis for understanding everything else.

1 Introduction

  Chapter 1 is the introduction to the book. We discuss the approach take in organizing the topics, and suggestions for how to use the material... and the Three Answers, answering any question in telecommunications.

1.1 Our Approach


1.2 How the Text is Organized


1.3 How to Use This Text


1.4 The Three Answers

  1.4.1 Answer Number 1: Money
  1.4.2 Answer Number 2: History
  1.4.3 Answer Number 3: It's All Pretty Much the Same Thing

2 Fundamentals of Telephony

  Whether you're interested in telecom, datacom, wireless or networking, everything begins with the Public Switched Telephone Network and Plain Ordinary Telephone Service. We'll begin with a model for the PSTN, explaining analog circuits, the voiceband and circuit switching, common telephony buzzwords and jargon, and an overview of SS7. This chapter is completed with Voice over IP... part of today's fundamentals.

2.1 History of Telecommunications

  2.1.1 Invention of the Telephone
  2.1.2 Local Phone Companies
  2.1.3 The Bell System
  2.1.4 US Regulation and Competition
  2.1.5 Consolidation
  2.1.6 Other Carriers
  2.1.7 Canadian Telegraph Companies
  2.1.8 Canadian Telephone Companies
  2.1.9 The Rest of the World

2.2 The Public Switched Telephone Network

  2.2.1 Basic Model of the PSTN
  2.2.2 Loops
  2.2.3 Trunks and Circuit Switching
  2.2.4 Remotes
  2.2.5 DSL and DSLAMs in the Outside Plant
  2.2.6 Brownfields: DSL on Copper to the Premise
  2.2.7 Greenfields: GPONs on Fiber to the Premise
  2.2.8 Active Ethernet to the Premise
  2.2.9 Why the Loop Still Matters

2.3 Analog

  2.3.1 Analog Signals
  2.3.2 Analog Circuits

2.4 Capacity Restrictions

  2.4.1 What is Speech?
  2.4.2 Do Trees Falling in the Forest Make a Sound?
  2.4.3 The Voiceband
  2.4.4 Bandwidth
  2.4.5 Why Does the Voiceband Stop at 3300 Hz?
  2.4.6 Problems With Voiceband Restrictions

2.5 Problems with Analog Transmission

  2.5.1 Attenuation and Amplifiers
  2.5.2 Electro-Magnetic Interference
  2.5.3 Crosstalk
  2.5.4 Impulse Noise

2.6 Plain Ordinary Telephone Service (POTS)

  2.6.1 Tip and Ring
  2.6.4 Microphone and Speaker
  2.6.5 Balanced Signaling
  2.6.6 Two-Way Simultaneous
  2.6.7 Hybrid Transformer
  2.6.8 Battery
  2.6.9 Lightning Protection
  2.6.10 Supervision
  2.6.11 Call Progress Tones

2.7 Network Addresses: Telephone Numbers

  2.7.1 Dialing Plan
  2.7.2 Address Signaling
  2.7.3 Pulse Dialing
  2.7.4 DTMF: "Touch Tone"
  2.7.5 In-Band Signaling
  2.7.6 "Hidden" Buttons
  2.7.7 Caller ID

2.8 SS7

  2.8.1 Out-Of-Band Signaling
  2.8.2 Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN)
  2.8.3 Switch-Based Call Routing
  2.8.4 SS7 In Practice
  2.8.5 Residential Service Application Example
  2.8.6 Business Service Application Example

2.9 Voice over IP (VoIP)

  2.9.1 Packetized Voice
  2.9.2 VoIP System Components
  2.9.3 VoIP Phones and Other VoIP Terminals
  2.9.4 Physical Connections: Wired and Wireless LANs
  2.9.5 Softswitch
  2.9.6 Router
  2.9.7 Gateway
  2.9.8 Firewall


3 Switching

  This chapter covers switching, starting with a model of the telecom network showing where switches fit into the network, traditional telephone switches: Centrex, PBX and PBX trunks, and how that relates to the newer ideas of softswitches, Hosted PBX and SIP trunking.

3.1 Telephone Network Architecture

  3.1.1 Access Network
  3.1.2 Switching Network
  3.1.3 Transmission Network

3.2 Telephone Switches

  3.2.1 Circuit Switching
  3.2.2 CO Switches
  3.2.3 Line Cards
  3.2.4 Digital Switching

3.3 Traditional PBX and Centrex

  3.3.1 PBX
  3.3.2 PBX Trunks
  3.3.3 Digital Telephones: Electronic Business Sets
  3.3.4 PBX and PABX
  3.3.5 Attendant
  3.3.6 Automated Attendant
  3.3.7 IVR
  3.3.8 Direct Inward Dialing (DID)
  3.3.9 Automated Call Distribution (ACD)
  3.3.10 Call Centers
  3.3.11 Advantages of PBX
  3.3.12 Disadvantages of PBX
  3.3.13 Centrex
  3.3.14 Advantages of Centrex
  3.3.15 Disadvantages of Centrex
  3.3.16 PBX vs. Centrex
  3.3.17 Key Systems

3.4 SIP, Soft Switches, Hosted PBX and IP Centrex

  3.4.1 Hard Switches
  3.4.2 Soft Switches
  3.4.3 SIP
  3.4.4 Additional Functions
  3.4.5 Location Independence
  3.4.6 Customer Premise Softswitch
  3.4.7 Centrex
  3.4.8 Hosted PBX

3.5 SIP Trunking

  3.5.1 PBX Trunks and Tie Lines
  3.5.2 VoIP Trunking
  3.5.3 Gateway Service


4 The Telecommunications Industry

  Chapter 4 provides a practical overview of the telecommunications industry: service providers and alliances, competitive forces, structure and regulation; resellers, IXCs, LECs, CLECs and collocations... the telecom business.

4.1 US Telephone Companies

  4.1.1 LECs, LATAs and Baby Bells
  4.1.2 Independents
  4.1.3 Inter-Exchange Carriers: IXCs
  4.1.4 Switched Access Charge
  4.1.5 CLECs and ILECs
  4.1.6 Resellers
  4.1.7 Consolidation
  4.1.8 Cable TV: Broadband Carriers

4.2 AT&T and Verizon


4.3 Canadian Telephone Companies

  4.3.1 Bell Canada
  4.3.2 TELUS
  4.3.3 Ownership
  4.3.4 Competitive Inter-Exchange Carriers
  4.3.5 Resellers
  4.3.6 Wireless

4.4 PSTN Switching Center Hierarchy

  4.4.1 Class 5: Central Office
  4.4.2 Wire Center
  4.4.3 Local Calls
  4.4.4 Class 4: Toll Center
  4.4.5 Class 1, 2 and 3 Switching Centers
  4.4.6 High Usage Trunks

4.5 Switched Access to LD Competitors: LECs, POPs and IXCs

  4.5.1 Access Network, LECs and ILECs
  4.5.2 Long Distance: IXCs
  4.5.3 Switched Access
  4.5.4 POP: Point of Presence
  4.5.5 Equal Access and PIC Codes

4.6 High-Capacity Access to Long-Distance

  4.6.1 Dedicated Line from the ILEC In-City
  4.6.2 Tariffs
  4.6.3 Advantages and Disadvantages

4.7 CLEC: Collocations and Dark Fiber

  4.7.1 Unbundling
  4.7.2 Dark Fiber and Dry Copper
  4.7.3 Competitive Local Exchange Carrier (CLEC)
  4.7.4 Collocations
  4.7.5 Advantages
  4.7.6 Disadvantages
  4.7.7 Application

4.8 Bypass

  4.8.1 Easements

4.9 Competitive Carrier Network Model: Rings, POPs and MANs

  4.9.1 Fiber Rings

Part 2: Telecommunications Technologies
The second part of Telecom 101 is devoted to telecommunications technologies:
the actual methods used to implement circuits and services.

5 Digital

  This chapter will give you a real understanding of what "digital" means, and how it is implemented.
We'll understand how voice is digitized, the standard 64 kb/s bit rate, plus digital video standards like HD and 4K.
We finish understanding how bits are actually transmitted "digitally" on copper and fiber.

5.1 Analog and Digital: What do we really mean?

  5.1.1 Analog Signal
  5.1.2 Analog Circuit
  5.1.3 Digital Signal
  5.1.4 Digital Circuit
  5.1.5 Bandwidth

5.2 Continuous vs. Discrete Signals

  5.2.1 Continuous Signals
  5.2.2 Discrete Signals

5.3 Voice Digitization (Analog-Digital Conversion)

  5.3.1 Quantization
  5.3.2 Sampling
  5.3.3 Coding

5.4 Voice Reconstruction (Digital - Analog Conversion)

  5.4.1 Reconstruction
  5.4.2 Quantization Error
  5.4.3 Aliasing Error

5.5 Voice Digitization: 64 kb/s G.711 Standard

  5.5.1 256 Quantization Levels.
  5.5.2 8,000 Samples per Second
  5.5.3 8-bit Coding
  5.5.4 64 kb/s G.711 Codec Standard
  5.5.5 64 kb/s DS0 Channels
  5.5.6 64 kb/s Packetized Voice
  5.5.7 μ-law and a-law

5.6 Digital Video, H.264 and MPEG4

  5.6.1 Digital Video Cameras
  5.6.2 Factors Affecting Video Quality
  5.6.3 Definition vs. Resolution
  5.6.4 Standard Definition, Interlaced and 480i
  5.6.5 High Definition, Progressive and 720p
  5.6.6 Full HD 1080 and 2K
  5.6.7 Ultra HD and 4K
  5.6.8 Compression
  5.6.9 MPEG
  5.6.10 MPEG-4 and H.264

5.7 Digital Transmission: Binary Pulses

  5.7.1 Analog: Attenuation, Added Noise and Amplifiers
  5.7.2 Digital: Pulses and Repeaters
  5.7.3 Repeaters on Copper Wires
  5.7.4 Repeaters on Fiber
  5.7.5 Comfort Noise Generation


6 Transmission Systems

  In this chapter, we cover the high-capacity systems developed to carry many users’ traffic. This starts with the installed base of channelized systems, the hierarchy of DS0, DS1 and DS3 rates and an overview of T1, T3, SONET, SDH and ISDN. Then our attention turns to the new-generation packetized systems, introducing the concepts of overbooking and bandwidth on demand instead of channels, routers instead of multiplexers, how this is implemented with frames and packets, the need for MPLS traffic management, and the coexistence and transition from channels to packets.

6.1 Channelized Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)

  6.1.1 Channels
  6.1.2 Example: Time-Share Condos
  6.1.3 Trunk Carrier Systems
  6.1.4 Inefficient for Data

6.2 Multiplexers

  6.2.1 Example: T1
  6.2.2 T1 Mux or Channel Bank
  6.2.3 Time Slots
  6.2.4 Framing Bits
  6.2.5 DS1 Rate
  6.2.6 CSU
  6.2.7 Repeaters
  6.2.8 Synchronization
  6.2.9 Applications for T1
  6.2.10 SONET TDM on Fiber

6.3 The Digital Hierarchy: Legacy Channelized Transmission Speeds

  6.3.1 Kilo, Mega, Giga, Tera
  6.3.2 DS0
  6.3.3 DS1 and E1
  6.3.4 DS2
  6.3.5 DS3
  6.3.6 STM and SDH

6.4 Digital Carrier Systems:

  Legacy Transmission Technologies
  6.4.1 Technologies
  6.4.2 Carrier Systems
  6.4.3 T1
  6.4.4 T3 and Bit-Interleaved Multiplexing
  6.4.5 SONET and Byte-Interleaved Multiplexing
  6.4.6 SDH
  6.4.7 Line Speed vs. Technology

6.5 Framing

  6.5.1 Synchronous Time-Division Multiplexing
  6.5.2 Framing and Transmission Frames
  6.5.3 DS1 Frame
  6.5.4 STS-1 (DS3) Frames
  6.5.5 SONET Optical Carrier Frames
  6.5.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Channels

6.6 ISDN

  6.6.1 Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
  6.6.2 Obsolescence of BRI
  6.6.3 Primary Rate Interface (PRI)
  6.6.4 PRI Physical Connection
  6.6.5 T1 vs. PRI

6.7 Statistical Time Division Multiplexing

  6.7.1 Toll Plaza Example
  6.7.2 Overbooking / Oversubscription
  6.7.3 The Need For Addressing
  6.7.4 Statistical Multiplexing Equipment
  6.7.5 Packet Networks

6.8 Framing on IP Packet Networks

  6.8.1 Old vs. New
  6.8.2 MAC Frames Instead of Framing Bits
  6.8.3 Routers
  6.8.4 Prioritization
  6.8.5 MPLS
  6.8.6 Implementation with Optical Ethernet

6.9 Coexistence and Transition from Channels to Packets

  6.9.1 Old: Everything in Channels
  6.9.2 New: Everything in Packets
  6.9.3 Gateways for Legacy Voice
  6.9.4 Packetized Voice from the Customer Premise
  6.9.5 Packets over Non-Channelized SONET


7 The Cloud and Service Provisioning

  In this short chapter, we explain the "network cloud" and how services are actually provided by carriers:
the three types of services: dedicated lines, circuit-switched and packet-switched, the three types of edge equipment: multiplexers, telephone switches and routers, and which is used for what.

7.1 Anatomy of a Service


7.2 The Network "Cloud"

  7.3 Inside the Network Cloud
  7.4 Network Equipment

7.5 Service Provisioning Summary


8 Fiber Optics

  This chapter covers the essentials of fiber optics, including fundamentals of wavelengths and glass fibers,
Dense Wave-Division Multiplexing (DWDM), Optical Ethernet, fiber in network core, edge and access,
Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs), Fiber To The Premise (FTTP) and Passive Optical Networks (PONs).

8.1 Fiber Basics

  8.1.1 Lamdas
  8.1.2 Pulses of Light
  8.1.3 Attenuation and Dispersion

8.2 Glass Fiber and Fiber Cables

  8.2.1 Core
  8.2.2 Cladding and Coating
  8.2.3 Cables
  8.2.4 Redundancy

8.3 Optical Wavelengths, Bands and Modes

  8.3.1 Bands
  8.3.2 Multimode and Modal Dispersion
  8.3.3 Single-Mode Fiber
  8.3.4 Chromatic Dispersion
  8.3.5 Polarization-Mode Dispersion

8.4 Wave-Division Multiplexing: CWDM and DWDM

  8.4.1 WDM
  8.4.2 WDM Multiplexers
  8.4.3 Optical Ethernet Paths
  8.4.4 Current and Future Capacities

8.5 Optical Ethernet

  8.5.1 Point-to-Point Connections
  8.5.2 SFP Modules and Connectors
  8.5.3 IEEE Standards

8.6 Network Core

  8.6.1 SONET and SDH
  8.6.2 Optical Ethernet, RPR and MPLS
  8.6.3 Fiber Rings

8.7 Metropolitan Area Network

  8.7.1 MANs to Office Buildings and Apartment Buildings
  8.7.2 MANs to Neighborhoods

8.8 Fiber to the Premise (FTTP) & PONs

  8.8.1 Passive Optical Network (PON)
  8.8.2 Active Ethernet


9 DSL and Cable Modems: Last Mile on Copper

  While the lucky few have fiber to the home, many others will use existing copper-wire entry cables for high-speed Internet while waiting for it. Accordingly, this chapter covers Last Mile on Copper: DSL and Cable Modems, explaining the fundamentals of modems and modulation, DSL, DSLAMs, VDSL, broadband cable modems and DOCSIS.

9.1 Modems

  9.1.1 Why Bother With Modems?

9.2 Modulation Techniques

  9.2.1 Modulation of Carrier Frequencies
  9.2.2 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)
  9.2.3 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
  9.2.4 Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
  9.2.5 Define More Signals to Communicate More Bits
  9.2.6 Quadrature PSK (QPSK)
  9.2.7 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
  9.2.8 Constraints on Achievable Bit Rate

9.3 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

  9.3.1 DSL: Modems Above The Voiceband
  9.3.2 ADSL, SDSL and XDSL

9.4 DSLAMs

  9.4.1 DSL Modem Hard-Wired to Loop
  9.4.2 Coexistence with POTS

9.5 Fiber to the Neighborhood (FTTN),

  DSL to the Premise
  9.5.1 Loop Length
  9.5.2 Remote DSLAMs, OPI and SAC Boxes

9.6 DSL Standards

  9.6.1 ADSL2+
  9.6.2 VDSL2
  9.6.3 VDSL2 Frequency Bands and Profiles
  9.6.4 Bonding
  9.6.5 Vectoring

9.7 Broadband Carriers: FTTN & Broadband Coax to the Premise

  9.7.1 Hybrid Fiber-Coax Network
  9.7.2 Frequency Channels
  9.7.3 Fiber Serving Area
  9.7.4 Television Converters
  9.7.5 Modems on CATV Channels
  9.7.6 Two-Way Communications Over Shared Access

9.8 DOCSIS and Cable Modem Standards

  9.8.1 DOCSIS 1: Contention-Based Channel Sharing
  9.8.2 DOCSIS 2: Reserved Time Slots on Channels
  9.8.3 DOCSIS 3: CDMA on Channels
  9.8.4 DOCSIS 3.1: OFDM
  9.8.5 Wider Channels


10 Wireless

  Chapter 10 is on Wireless, concentrating on mobile communications: cellular and mobility concepts, the technologies TDMA, CDMA and OFDM, the generations from 1G to 4G, and the systems GSM, UMTS, 1X and LTE. We'll understand Internet access over cellular, Wi-Fi, Wi-Fi security and satellite-based communications.

10.1 Radio


10.2 Mobile Networks

  10.2.1 0G: The Mobile Phone System
  10.2.2 Mobility
  10.2.3 Base Station, Cell, Airlink and Handset
  10.2.4 Mobile Switch
  10.2.5 Backhaul
  10.2.6 Registration and Paging
  10.2.7 Handoff

10.3 Cellular Radio and 1G

  10.3.1 1G: The Advanced Mobile Phone System
  10.3.2 Cells
  10.3.3 Frequency Re-Use
  10.3.4 Analog on Radio Channels
  10.3.5 AMPS Handoffs
  10.3.6 AMPS Capacity

10.4 Second Generation: Digital Cellular

  10.4.1 PCS and GSM
  10.4.2 Digital Cellular Radio

10.5 Mobile Internet and "Data" Plans

  10.5.1 Cellphone as a Tethered Modem
  10.5.2 Packet Relay to the Internet
  10.5.3 Dongles
  10.5.4 Cellphone as the Terminal
  10.5.5 "Data" Billing Plans
  10.5.6 Fluid Layout, Responsive Design & "Mobile" Pages


  10.6.1 FDMA
  10.6.2 TDMA
  10.6.3 CDMA
  10.6.4 OFDM

10.7 3G Cellular: CDMA

  10.7.1 IMT-2000
  10.7.2 1X or CDMA2000: IMT-MC
  10.7.3 UMTS or W-CDMA: IMT-DS
  10.7.4 Data-Optimized Carriers: HSPA and EV-DO
  10.7.5 The End of the Standards War

10.8 4G Mobile Cellular: LTE

  10.8.1 Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network Long-Term Evolution
  10.8.2 OFDM
  10.8.3 3GPP Standards Committees
  10.8.4 Qualcomm Patents

10.9 Wireless LANs

  10.9.1 System Components
  10.9.2 Unlicensed Radio Bands
  10.9.3 802.11 Standards
  10.9.4 VoIP over Wireless LANs
  10.9.5 Wireless Security

10.10 Communication Satellites

  10.10.1 Transponders
  10.10.2 Geosynchronous Orbit
  10.10.3 Low Earth Orbit

Part 3: The IP Packet-Switched Telecom Network (IP-PSTN)
The third part of Telecom 101 is dedicated to the new-generation IP telecommunications network.

11 "Data" Communications


We begin by understanding how the IP telecom network achieves the long-sought goal of convergence, what "convergence" is, and how it was achieved by treating voice and video like data. Then we'll do a "flyover" of datacom and networking basics: DTE and DCE, serial and parallel, LANs and WANs, MAC and IP addressing.


11.1 Convergence: Treat Everything Like Data

  11.1.1 Convergence via ISDN
  11.1.2 Convergence via ATM
  11.1.3 Convergence via IP

11.2 Information Theory


11.3 Data Circuit Model


11.4 DTE: Data Terminal Equipment


11.5 Data Circuits

  11.5.1 Analog Data Circuits
  11.5.2 2-Wire and 4-Wire Circuits
  11.5.3 Broadband Analog
  11.5.4 Analog on Fiber
  11.5.5 Digital

11.6 DCE: Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment


11.7 Point-to-Point Circuits


11.8 Multidrop Circuits


11.9 LANs: Local Area Networks


11.10 WANs: Wide Area Networks


12 Coding, Frames and Packets


In this chapter, we'll go over the fundamentals of what used to be called “data communications”:
the solid base necessary to understand the new-generation IP telecom network... especially the
critical ideas of MAC frames and IP packets, and how the MAC address relates to the IP address,
and what changes as a packet is forwarded by routers hop-by-hop across the network.


12.1 Essential Functions for Communication

  12.1.1 Coding
  12.1.2 Bits
  12.1.3 Bytes
  12.1.4 Error Control
  12.1.5 Framing
  12.1.6 Addressing

12.2 Coding Quantities: Number Systems

  12.2.1 Decimal
  12.2.2 Binary
  12.2.3 Hexadecimal
  12.2.4 Common Use for Hexadecimal

12.3 Coding Text

  12.3.1 ASCII
  12.3.2 Unicode

12.4 "Asynchronous": Start/Stop/Parity

  12.4.1 Asynchronous Communications
  12.4.2 Framing: Start and Stop Bits
  12.4.3 Parity Checking

12.5 Frames and MAC Addresses

  12.5.1 Data Link Protocol
  12.5.2 Framing
  12.5.3 Address
  12.5.4 Control Field
  12.5.5 Payload
  12.5.6 CRC: Cyclic Redundancy Checking

12.6 Networks, Packets & IP Addresses


12.7 Packets vs. Frames

  12.7.1 Link Address vs. Network Address

12.8 IP Packets

  12.8.1 IP Packet Header
  12.8.2 Connectionless Network Service
  12.8.3 Relationship to TCP


13 The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks


There are so many functions that need to be performed to implement phone calls, television, web browsing, email and everything else over the IP network, a structure is necessary to be able to discuss separate issues separately. The most widely-used structure is the OSI Reference Model and its layers. In this chapter, we define what a layer is, what the layers in the model are, and give examples of protocols used to implement each layer including SMTP email; ASCII, encryption and codecs; SIP, POP and HTTP; TCP and UDP, IP and Ethernet. The chapter concludes with protocol stacks, practical insight into how a protocol stack works and standards bodies.


13.1 Protocols and Standards

  13.1.1 Functions To Be Performed
  13.1.2 Monolithic vs. Structured Protocols
  13.1.3 Open Systems and Standards

13.2 ISO OSI Reference Model

  13.2.1 Layers
  13.2.2 Separability of the Layers
  13.2.3 Protocol Stacks

13.3 The OSI 7-Layer Model


13.4 Physical Layer: 802.3, DSL, DOCSIS


13.5 Data Link Layer: 802 MAC

  13.5.1 LANs, Frames and Layer 2 Switches
  13.5.2 MAC Frames and MAC Addresses
  13.5.3 Other Data Link Protocols

13.6 Network Layer: IP and MPLS

  13.6.1 Packet-Switched Networks
  13.6.2 Routing Table Updates
  13.6.3 MPLS

13.7 Transport Layer: TCP and UDP

  13.7.1 Reliability
  13.7.2 Port Numbers

13.8 Session Layer: POP, SIP, HTTP

  13.8.1 Password Authentication
  13.8.2 Authentication Servers
  13.8.3 Cookies
  13.8.4 Client-Server Sessions
  13.8.5 Peer-Peer Sessions

13.9 Presentation Layer: ASCII, Encryption, Codecs

  13.9.1 Character Coding
  13.9.2 E-Mail Coding
  13.9.3 Codecs
  13.9.4 Data Compression
  13.9.5 Symmetric Encryption: Private Key
  13.9.6 Asymmetric Encryption: Public Key Encryption and Digital Signatures
  13.9.7 Example of Separability of Layers
  13.9.8 Example of Peer Protocol

13.10 Application Layer: SMTP, HTML, English …

  13.10.1 Email
  13.10.2 More Application Layer Examples

13.11 Protocol Stacks

  13.11.1 Example: Web Surfing
  13.11.2 Voice over IP

13.12 Protocol Stack in Operation: Russian Dolls

  13.12.1 Communications Flow
  13.12.2 Segmentation at Each Layer
  13.12.3 Nested Headers: Matryoshka dolls

13.13 Standards Organizations

  13.13.1 ISO
  13.13.2 DOD and IETF
  13.13.3 ITU and Bellcore
  13.13.4 TIA and IEEE
  13.13.5 ANSI


14 Ethernet, LANs and VLANs

  Chapter 14 is all about Layer 2, which is implemented with 802.3 Ethernet and LAN switches. We'll cover fundamental LAN concepts, MAC addresses and MAC frames, LAN cables, the evolution of Ethernet from copper wires to Optical Ethernet on fiber, LAN / Layer 2 switches and the critical concept of VLANs used to separate traffic.

14.1 LAN Basics

  14.1.1 Bus Topology
  14.1.2 Broadcast Domain
  14.1.3 Balanced Configuration
  14.1.4 Collision Domain
  14.1.5 CSMA-CD Access Control
  14.1.6 MAC Address
  14.1.7 Communication of MAC Frames

14.2 Ethernet and 802 Standards

  14.2.1 IEEE 802 Standards
  14.2.2 Ethernet vs. 802.3
  14.2.3 Token Ring
  14.2.4 Baseband LAN
  14.2.5 10BASE-5
  14.2.6 10BASE-2
  14.2.7 10BASE-T
  14.2.8 100BASE-T
  14.2.9 1000BASE-T
  14.2.10 Optical Ethernet

14.3 LAN Cables and Categories

  14.3.1 Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
  14.3.2 Shielding
  14.3.3 TIA-568 LAN Cable Categories
  14.3.4 TIA-568A vs. TIA-568B
  14.3.5 Maximum Cable Length and Cabling Architecture
  14.3.6 Difference Between Categories
  14.3.7 Which Category To Use

14.4 LAN Switches: Layer 2 Switches

  14.4.1 Hardware
  14.4.2 Purpose and Operation
  14.4.3 Buffers
  14.4.4 Frame Forwarding
  14.4.5 Broadcast Domain Defined by Switch

14.5 VLANs

  14.5.1 Broadcast Domains Defined in Software
  14.5.2 Routing Between VLANs
  14.5.3 Header Tag
  14.5.4 Traffic Management and Network Security


15 IP Networks, Routers and Addresses

  In this chapter, we'll understand IP packet networks, beginning with the functions routers perform, and how IP subnets are mapped onto broadcast domains to simplify routing. Then we'll cover the whole IP addressing story including IP address classes, DHCP, dynamic and static addresses, public and private addresses, Network Address Translation and IP version 6 (IPv6), and how TCP and UDP and port numbers fit into the story.

15.1 Definition of Network


15.2 Simplest Example: Private Network

  15.2.1 Broadcast Domain at Each Location
  15.2.2 Edge Router at Each Location
  15.2.3 Subnet Assigned to Broadcast Domain
  15.2.4 Default Gateway
  15.2.5 Subnet Mask
  15.2.6 Packet Creation
  15.2.7 Packet Transmission from the Source
  15.2.8 IP to MAC Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  15.2.9 Packet Routing
  15.2.10 Overbooking & Bandwidth on Demand

15.3 Routers and Customer Edge

  15.3.1 Customer Edge Device
  15.3.2 Router Connects Broadcast Domains
  15.3.3 Routing
  15.3.4 Denying Communications
  15.3.5 Packet Filtering
  15.3.6 Port Filtering
  15.3.7 Firewall

15.4 IPv4 Address Classes

  15.4.1 Packets and Network Addresses
  15.4.2 Historical Network Classes
  15.4.3 Class A, B and C
  15.4.4 Network ID and Host ID
  15.4.5 Class D and E
  15.4.6 Classless Inter-Domain Routing
  15.4.7 Dotted-Decimal Notation

15.5 DHCP

  15.5.1 Dynamic Addresses for Clients
  15.5.2 Static Addresses and DNS for Servers
  15.5.3 DHCP Client – Server Communications
  15.5.4 DHCP Message Exchange
  15.5.5 Lease Expiry
  15.5.6 DHCP to Assign Static Addresses

15.6 Public and Private IPv4 Addresses

  15.6.1 Public Addresses
  15.6.2 Regional Internet Registries
  15.6.3 Unassigned or Private Addresses

15.7 Network Address Translation

  15.7.1 Network Address Translator
  15.7.2 Outbound
  15.7.3 Inbound
  15.7.4 Advantages of NAT
  15.7.5 Implementation

15.8 TCP and UDP


15.9 IPv6

  15.9.1 Expanded Addressing Capabilities
  15.9.2 Header Simplification
  15.9.3 Improved Support for Extensions and Options
  15.9.4 Support for Traffic Management
  15.9.5 IPv6 Packet Format

15.10 IPv6 Address Allocation and Address Types

  15.10.1 Internet Registry Identification
  15.10.2 Sites and Global Routing Prefix
  15.10.3 Interface ID
  15.10.4 Subnet ID
  15.10.5 Subnet Prefix
  15.10.6 IPv6 Address Types


16 MPLS and Carrier Networks

  There are no Quality of Service mechanisms in the IP protocol, and so no way to guarantee performance. For guarantees, a traffic management system using a technique called virtual circuits is implemented with MPLS. This chapter covers Service Level Agreements and Class of Service (CoS), briefly reviews legacy technologies, then focuses on MPLS and how it is used to implement VPNs, prioritization and differentiated services, service integration and traffic aggregation.

16.1 Introduction

  16.1.1 Overbooking
  16.1.2 Congestion, Contention and Packet Loss
  16.1.3 MPLS Traffic Management System

16.2 Carrier Packet Network Basics

  16.2.1 Provider Edge (PE) and Customer Edge (CE)
  16.2.2 Access
  16.2.3 Advantages of Packet Networks

16.3 Service Level Agreements

  16.3.1 Traffic Profile
  16.3.2 Contract
  16.3.3 Business Decisions
  16.3.4 Enforcement: Out of Profile Traffic
  16.3.5 Abusive Applications: Bit Torrent

16.4 Provider Equipment at the Customer Premise


16.5 Virtual Circuit Technologies

  16.5.1 Traffic Classes
  16.5.2 Traffic Class ID & Virtual Circuit ID
  16.5.3 Ingress Device: Packet Classification
  16.5.4 Forwarding Based on Class Number
  16.5.5 Differentiated Services
  16.5.6 SVCs and PVCs

16.6 Packet-Switching using Virtual Circuits

  16.6.1 X.25 Network Structure and Operation
  16.6.2 Reliable Network Service: Guaranteed Delivery
  16.6.3 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless Network Service

16.7 Frame Relay using Virtual Circuits

  16.7.1 Elimination of a Layer of Software
  16.7.2 Unreliable Service
  16.7.3 Network Structure and Operation
  16.7.4 No Guarantees for Voice

16.8 ATM

  16.8.1 Future-Proof Technology (Not)
  16.8.2 ATM Cells
  16.8.3 Service Classes

16.9 MPLS

  16.9.1 MPLS vs. TCP
  16.9.2 Forwarding Equivalence Class
  16.9.3 Labels
  16.9.4 Label-Switched Path
  16.9.5 Label Edge Routers
  16.9.6 IP User-Network Interface
  16.9.7 Label-Switching Routers

16.10 MPLS VPN Service for Business Customers

  16.10.1 Private Network Service
  16.10.2 Virtual Private Network (VPN)
  16.10.3 Internet VPNs
  16.10.4 MPLS VPN

16.11 MPLS and Diff-Serv to Support Class of Service

  16.11.1 DS Codepoints
  16.11.2 Assured Forwarding and Expedited Forwarding

16.12 MPLS for Integrated Access

  16.12.1 SIP Trunking, VPN and Internet on One Access

16.13 MPLS for Traffic Aggregation

  16.13.1 Label Stacking

16.14 M is for Multiprotocol: Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS)


17 The Internet

  Let's not forget the Internet! This chapter provides a concise explanation of the Internet, reviewing past and present, Internet Service Providers (ISPs), who pays for it, TCP and IP, SMTP and MIME for e-mail, HTML, Web servers and browsers, the Domain Name System and more. The chapter concludes with the Internet as a business: wholesale transit and peering and Content Delivery Networks.

17.1 A Network To Survive Nuclear War

  17.1.1 Unreliable, Connectionless Network Service
  17.1.2 Al Gore Invents the Internet
  17.1.3 Who Pays for the Internet?
  17.1.4 Primitive Beginnings

17.2 The Inter-Net Protocol

  17.2.1 Gateways
  17.2.2 IP: Common Packet Format and Address Scheme
  17.2.3 Connectionless
  17.2.4 Unreliable
  17.2.5 Need for TCP
  17.2.6 Routing and ASes

17.3 Internet Service Providers

  17.3.1 The Internet is a Business
  17.3.2 ISPs
  17.3.3 Interconnect, Peering and Transit
  17.3.4 Resellers

17.4 World Wide Web

  17.4.1 Clients and Web Servers
  17.4.2 Hyperlinks and URLs

17.5 Domain Name System

  17.5.1 Domain Zone Files
  17.5.2 Name Resolution

17.6 Hypertext

  17.6.1 HTML
  17.6.2 HTTP
  17.6.3 SSL: Secure Socket Layer and HTTPS:

17.7 MIME and Base-64 Encoding for Email Attachments

  17.7.1 Binary, Text and uuencode
  17.7.2 MIME
  17.7.3 Quoted-Printable
  17.7.4 Base64 Encoding

17.8 Internet Telephony & VSPs

  17.8.1 VoIP Service Provider (VSP)
  17.8.2 Internet - PSTN Connection
  17.8.3 Adapters
  17.8.4 Cost Savings

17.9 Internet VPNs

  17.9.1 Virtual Point-to-Point Connections
  17.9.2 IPsec and Tunnels
  17.9.3 Hardware


Appendix A T1

  This Appendix covers T1 technology in detail. T1 is a copper-wire technology from the 1950s, that was called "high capacity" or "hi-cap" service. It is now old and slow in comparison to today's technologies. However, there are still many T1 circuits in service, so rather than deleting the chapter on T1 that was in previous editions of the book, it has been moved to the back of the book in the Fourth Edition. We cover T1's origins, concepts such as framing and AMI line codes, and understand what repeaters are for and why this is superior to analog. We'll also cover B8ZS and clear channels, HDSL, cross-connects, fractional T1 and CSU/DSUs.

A.1 T1 History and Applications


A.2 T1 Circuit Components


A.3 Operation


A.4 T1 Framing

  A.4.1 Superframe Format
  A.4.2 ESF

A.5 Pulses and Line Code: AMI

  A.5.1 Repeaters

A.6 Synchronization: Bit-Robbing

  A.6.1 56 kb/s for Data

A.7 B8ZS and 64 kb/s Clear Channels


A.8 How T1 Is Provided

  A.8.1 HDSL

A.9 Fractional T1, DACS and Cross-Connects


A.10 Subrate Data Circuits 1.2 kb/s to 56 kb/s

  A.10.1 CSUs, DSUs and CSU/DSUs


Appendix B Voice Services and Jargon

  This appendix provides a summary and overview of legacy voice communication services from carriers,
explaining jargon like Tie Lines, Voice VPNs, WATS and AIN.

B.1 Local Voice Services

  B.1.1 POTS and Party Lines
  B.1.2 CLASS Services
  B.1.3 Local Measured Service
  B.1.4 Public Coin Telephone Service
  B.1.5 Directory Services
  B.1.6 Business Services
  B.1.7 Access

B.2 Long Distance Voice Services

  B.2.1 Operator Services
  B.2.2 Foreign Exchange
  B.2.3 OPX: Off-Premise Extension
  B.2.4 Tie Line
  B.2.5 Private Networks
  B.2.6 WATS
  B.2.7 AIN Services
  B.2.8 Virtual Private Voice Networks


Appendix C Acronyms and Abbreviations

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