Telecom 101

Top Quality Telecommunications Textbook & Day-to-Day Reference from Teracom Training Institute

5th edition published 2020
The knowledge you need, based on Teracom's famous core instructor-led telecommunications training Course 101, tuned and refined over 20 years and fully up to date.

4.6 ★★★★★Reviews on Amazon

"One of the best Telecommunications books of all time" - BookAuthority
The best Telecommunications books of all time

5th edition • published 2020

7" x 9" softcover textbook • 550 pages • printed in color

ISBN 9781894887588 (print)   ISBN 9781894887595 (eBook)

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All Major Telecommunications Topics covered ... in Plain English. Packed with up-to-date information and covering all major topics. Telecom 101 is an authoritative day-to-day reference and an invaluable textbook on telecom.

Updated for the 2020s throughout, Telecom 101: Fifth Edition includes the materials from Teracom's popular Course 101 Broadband, Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineers (also updated in 2020), plus additional topics.

Telecom 101 serves as the study guide for the TCO, Telecommunications Certification Organization, Certified Telecommunications Analyst (CTA) certification, including all required material for the CTA Certification Exam, except the security module.

Telecom 101 brings you completeness, consistency and unbeatable value in one volume.

Our philosophy is simple: Start at the beginning. Proceed in a logical order. Build concepts one on top of another. Speak in plain English. Avoid jargon.

Knowledge and understanding to last a lifetime... Build a solid base of structured knowledge and fill in the gaps. Cut through the doubletalk, demystify the jargon, bust the buzzwords. Understand how everything fits together!

The ideal book for anyone needing an understanding of the major topics in telecom, IP, data communications, and networking. Clear, concise, organized knowledge ... available in one place!

Trusted and Proven Content

This book is totally updated for the 2020s based on the material from Course 101: Broadband, Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineering Professionals, Teracom's instructor-led course, tuned and refined over 20 plus years.

Bringing the converged IP telecom network, broadband Internet, cloud computing, data centers and web services to the forefront, this book presents the necessary core knowledge set for anyone serious in telecom.

It is written for anyone new to telecom, getting up to speed, filling in gaps, and for everyone who do not have an Engineering degree specializing in telecommunications. Our goal is to demystify buzzwords and jargon, and to create a structured understanding of telecom including, most importantly, the underlying ideas, plus the technologies and services - and how they fit together.

The knowledge in this book draws from over 30 years of experience in telecom, working in jobs for telephone companies such as Junior R&D Engineer and systems engineer; as a consultant preparing telecom R&D tax credit claims; and through teaching many private courses for carriers onsite.

This book's style, the material included, the ordering and pacing, and even the jokes, are the result of instructing hundreds and hundreds of 2-day and 3-day courses on these topics over 24 years.

This book is the result. Telecom 101 is the course materials for the 3 day instructor-led course, augmented with substantial additional material, available in softcover textbook and ebook.

Telecom 101 is designed as a textbook, building one concept on another sequentially like an instructor-led course. It is also designed as a valuable day-to-day reference book and glossary.

Excellent Value

Written by Eric Coll, M.Eng., our top instructor, Telecom 101 distills and organizes 30 years of learning and knowledge into a practical day-to-day reference book and invaluable study guide for non-Engineers.

Below in the chapter list and detailed table of contents, you will see that Telecom 101 is like many self-contained reference books with chapters on specific topics such as Internet, Wireless, IP, LANs and MPLS.

Instead of having to purchase multiple books from different authors to explain each of these topics, you get them all, bound in a single volume, in a consistent style and quality, for one low price.

An investment that will pay off many times over with career and productivity enhancement.

Order today to obtain this invaluable reference!

Chapter List

Telecom 101 is organized in four parts: The Fundamentals, Telecommunications Technologies, Equipment, Carriers and Interconnect, and finally Networking - the core knowledge for anyone serious about telecom today.


The first eight chapters of Telecom 101 cover the fundamentals of telecom, explaining concepts, filling gaps and creating a solid knowledge base. The introduction to the book is followed by a high-level pass of all of the topics from a big-picture view.

Progressing in a logical order, we cover provisioning of telecom circuits by carriers, telecom fundamentals, and then IP packet network fundamentals. Next is the business-side of Internet: ISPs, web services like AWS, data centers and cloud computing.

Then we review services by category: residential, business and wholesale. Next is digital media including how voice is digitized, digital text, digital images, digital video, and digital quantities. The last topic in the fundamentals is the fundamentals of VoIP.


In the second section of the book, we explore wireless, fiber and copper - the three main technologies for transmitting information from one place to another.

We cover mobile network components and operation, spectrum sharing technologies, 4G LTE, 5G, Wi-Fi, fixed wireless broadband home internet and satellites.

Next you learn the fiber optic basics, how networks are built running Optical Ethernet with point-to-point fibers, wave-division multiplexing, and fiber in the core, metro area and to the premise.

We end with copper-wire technologies: the Legacy PSTN including DSL and POTS on twisted pair, Hybrid Fiber-Coax cable TV systems, cable modem standards, T1 and LAN cable categories.


In part three of the book, we explore equipment like switches and routers that are connected to form networks using the wireless, fiber and copper described in Part 2, and the purpose and place of each.

Then we learn where and how physical connections take place between carriers to connect PSTN phone calls, Internet traffic and CLEC services.


The final part of the book is devoted to IP networking. First, to provide a structure for discussion, we understand the layers of the OSI Reference Model: what the layers are, what a layer is, the functions of each, and the standard protocol for each layer.

The next chapter is on Layer 2: Ethernet and 802 standards, broadcast domains, LANs and VLANs. Then, Layer 3: IP addresses, DHCP, IP routers, Network Address Translation, public and private addresses and IPv6.

We finish by learning about MPLS, the core traffic management system, and how MPLS is used to implement classes of service, VPNs, service integration and traffic aggregation.

We wrap up with a review from the top down of the technologies and finally a peek what is in the future of telecommunications.


Telecommunications is constantly change - technologies that were once widespread are no longer. To make room for the new, the discussion of these technologies and some related technical issues have been demoted to appendices, rather than deleted, so they are still available for those who deal with legacy technologies.  The last appendix lists the acronyms and abbreviations referenced in the book.

Table of Contents / Detailed Outline

1 Introduction to the Book

1.1 Our Approach

1.2 How the Text is Organized

1.3 How to Use This Text

1.4 The Three Answers

1.5 Answer Number 1: Money

2 Introduction to Telecommunications

2.1 History of Telecommunications

2.1.1 Invention of the Telephone

2.1.2 Local Phone Companies

2.1.3 The Bell System

2.1.4 The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

2.1.5 Consolidation

2.1.6 Broadband Carriers

2.1.7 Canadian Telegraph Companies

2.1.8 Canadian Telephone Companies

2.1.9 The Rest of the World

2.1.10 New Technologies and New Players

2.2 Convergence

2.2.1 Network Sharing Strategies

2.2.2 ISDN

2.2.3 ATM

2.2.4 IP: Third Time is the Charm

2.3 Broadband

2.3.1 How Many Bits per Second is "Broadband"?

2.3.2 4K Guilty Dog Videos

2.3.3 Universal Service

2.4 Today's Converged Telecom Network

2.4.1 Common Carriers

2.4.2 Core

2.4.3 Access

2.4.4 Edge

2.4.5 Residential, Business and Wholesale Services

2.4.6 Data Centers

2.5 The Network Core

2.5.1 Rings

2.6 Network Protocols: Ethernet, IP and MPLS

2.6.1 Optical Ethernet Point-to-Point Links

2.6.2 IP Packet Routing Between Links

2.6.3 MPLS Traffic Management

2.7 Network Access: The Last Mile

2.7.1 Twisted Pair Loops

2.7.2 Coax

2.7.3 Fiber to the Residence & PONs

2.7.4 Wireless: Fixed and Mobile

2.8 Anatomy of a Service

2.8.1 Access Circuits

2.8.2 Circuit-Terminating Equipment

2.8.3 Network Connection Type

2.9 Inside the Network Cloud

2.9.1 Core

2.9.2 Edge

2.10 Network Edge Equipment

2.10.1 Multiplexers: TDM, FDM and WDM

2.10.2 Circuit Switch

2.10.3 Router

2.11 Interconnect to Other Carriers

2.11.1 The ILEC

2.11.2 Toll Switches, Toll Centers and POPs

2.11.3 Switched Access Tariff

2.11.4 Internet Traffic Interconnections

2.11.5 Business Service Interconnections

2.12 Services

2.12.1 Residential Services

2.12.2 Business Services

2.12.3 Wholesale Services

3 Telecom Fundamentals

3.1 Data Communication Circuit Model

3.1.1 Information Theory

3.1.2 ITU Model: DTEs and DCEs

3.2 Terminals, Clients, Servers and Peers

3.2.1 Dumb Terminal and Remote Host

3.2.2 Client-Server

3.2.3 Peer-to-Peer

3.3 Representing Bits on Digital Circuits:Pulses

3.3.1 Two-State Transmission Systems

3.3.2 Range Limiting Factors

3.3.3 Repeaters

3.3.4 Comfort Noise Generation

3.4 Representing Bits in Frequency Channels: Modems

3.4.1 Passband Channels

3.4.2 Carrier Frequencies

3.4.3 Modulation

3.4.4 "Press 1 to Understand How Modems Work"

3.4.5 Radio-Frequency Modems

3.4.6 CDMA and OFDM

3.4.7 ASK, FSK, PSK, QAM and QPSK

3.5 Serial and Parallel

3.5.1 Serial Ports: USB, LAN, SATA

3.5.2 Serial in Parallel For High Bit Rates

3.6 Sharing: Frequency-Division Multiplexing

3.6.1 Baseband vs. Frequency-Shifted

3.6.2 Coax, Radio and Fiber

3.6.3 Parallel

3.7 Sharing: Time-Division Multiplexing

3.7.1 Synchronous TDM Channels

3.7.2 Trunk Carrier Systems

3.7.3 T1, SONET and SDH

3.7.4 Other TDM Implementations: PONs, GSM, CAN-BUS

3.8 Efficient Sharing: Statistical Time Division Multiplexing

3.8.1 Bandwidth on Demand

3.8.2 Packet Switching

3.9 Overbooking: Reducing User Cost

4 Network Fundamentals

4.1 Essential Functions for Communication

4.1.1 Bits

4.1.2 Coding

4.1.3 Error Control

4.1.4 Framing

4.1.5 Link Addressing

4.1.6 Network Addressing

4.2 Shared Access Links: Wi-Fi, PONs, CATV, CAN-BUS

4.2.1 Primary Station and Secondary Stations

4.2.2 Physical Connection: Multidrop

4.2.3 Wi-Fi

4.2.4 PON

4.2.5 Cable TV

4.2.6 Industrial Controls: CAN-BUS

4.2.7 Legacy IBM Mainframes

4.3 Point-to-Point Links: Ethernet

4.3.1 Ethernet LANs and Balanced Mode

4.3.2 Transition to Point-to-Point and Switches

4.3.3 802 Standards

4.3.4 Buses, NICs, Interfaces and MAC Addresses

4.3.5 Switches

4.3.6 Broadcast Domains and MAC Addresses

4.4 Data Link Frames & MAC Addresses

4.4.1 MAC Frames

4.4.2 Transmission Between Devices on the Same Circuit

4.4.3 Legacy Systems and Terminology

4.5 Packet Networks

4.5.1 Routers and Network Addresses

4.5.2 Packets

4.5.3 Network Connections

4.5.4 Traffic Management

4.6 Carrier IP Networks

4.6.1 Routers and Routing

4.6.2 IP Packets

4.6.3 Network Routers and Customer Edge Router

4.6.4 End-to-End Packet Relay and Routing

4.7 IP Packets vs. MAC Frames

4.7.1 Purpose of Frames

4.7.2 Purpose of Packets

4.7.3 Packets Carried in Frames

4.7.4 MAC Address vs. IP Address

4.8 IP Packet Format

4.8.1 Packet Header

4.8.2 Unreliable, Connectionless Network Service

4.8.3 TCP/IP and Reliable Network Service

4.8.4 UDP and Best-Efforts Service

4.9 MPLS Labels

4.9.1 Managing Flows of Packets

4.9.2 Traffic Classes

5 The Internet

5.1 A Network To Survive Nuclear War

5.1.1 Connectionless Network Service

5.1.2 Al Gore Invents the Internet

5.1.3 Who Pays for the Internet?

5.1.4 Primitive Beginnings

5.2 The Inter-Net Protocol

5.2.1 Gateways

5.2.2 IP: Common Packet Format and Address Scheme

5.2.3 Connectionless, Unreliable Network Service

5.2.4 TCP and UDP

5.2.5 Routing Protocols

5.3 Internet Service Providers (ISPs)

5.3.1 Internet Access Providers

5.3.2 The Internet is a Business

5.3.3 Interconnect, Peering and Transit

5.3.4 Resellers

5.4 Domain Name System

5.4.1 DNS Servers

5.4.2 Domain Zone Files

5.4.3 SIP Records in DNS

5.5 Web Clients

5.5.1 Browsers

5.5.2 Apps

5.5.3 IoT Apps

5.6 Web Servers

5.6.1 HTML

5.6.2 HREFs and URLs

5.6.3 HTTP

5.7 Web Services and Cloud Computing

5.7.1 Web Server and Back End

5.7.2 Doing it Yourself & Dynamic DNS

5.7.3 Web Hosting

5.7.4 Virtualization and Cloud Computing

5.7.5 Amazon AWS

5.8 Data Centers

5.8.1 Commercial Multi-Tenant Data Centers

5.8.2 Collocation

5.8.3 Heat and Electricity

5.8.4 Connections to Internet Exchanges

5.9 Net Neutrality

5.9.1 No Corporations or Government

5.9.2 Without Regard for Content, Senders, or Receivers

5.9.3 Many Different Meanings

5.9.4 Criminal Activities

5.9.5 Transparency

5.9.6 Devil in the Details

5.9.7 No Meters

5.9.8 Zero-Rating

6 Telecom Services Overview

6.1 Residential Services

6.1.1 Broadband Internet

6.1.2 Convergence Achieved

6.1.3 PSTN Phone Numbers

6.1.4 VoIP Service Providers - Internet to PSTN Service

6.1.5 Basic Cable, Streaming, Rentals

6.1.6 Dedicated Capacity for TV vs. Internet Traffic

6.2 Business "Data" Services: VPNs & Internet

6.2.1 Internet

6.2.2 Private Network: Dedicated Lines

6.2.3 Virtual Private Network

6.2.4 MPLS VPNs

6.2.5 Internet VPNs

6.2.6 Anonymizer VPNs

6.2.7 Web Services

6.3 Business Voice Services: SIP Trunking, PBX Trunks, PRI, Centrex

6.3.1 Centrex

6.3.2 Private Branch Exchange & PBX Trunks

6.3.3 ISDN PRI

6.3.4 Tie Lines and Voice VPNs

6.3.5 Islands of VoIP

6.3.6 SIP Trunking: VoIP Between Locations & Dial-Out

6.3.7 Connecting VoIP to Ma Bell

6.3.8 SIP / VoIP Trunking Cheaper than PBX Trunks

6.4 Wholesale Services

6.4.1 Facilities-Based Carriers

6.4.2 Value-Adding Resellers

6.4.3 Services: Dark Fiber

6.4.4 Wavelengths

6.4.5 Carrier Ethernet

6.4.6 IP Services

6.4.7 Internet Transit

6.4.8 Internet Peering

6.4.9 Bit Rates

6.5 Content Delivery Networks

6.5.1 Paying Transit for Data Center to Consumer

6.5.2 Cutting Out the Middlemen

6.5.3 Implementing a Content Delivery Network

7 Digital Media: Voice, Video, Images, Quantities, Text

7.1 Analog and Digital: What do we really mean?

7.1.1 Analog Signal

7.1.2 Analog Circuit

7.1.3 Digital Signal

7.1.4 Digital Circuit

7.1.5 Bandwidth

7.2 Continuous vs. Discrete Signals

7.2.1 Continuous Signals

7.2.2 Discrete Signals

7.3 Voice Digitization (Analog-Digital Conversion)

7.3.1 Quantization

7.3.2 Sampling

7.3.3 Coding

7.4 Voice Reconstruction (Digital-Analog Conversion)

7.4.1 Reconstruction

7.4.2 Quantization Error

7.4.3 Aliasing Error

7.5 Voice Digitization: 64 kb/s G.711 Standard

7.5.1 256 Quantization Levels.

7.5.2 8,000 Samples per Second

7.5.3 8-bit Coding

7.5.4 64 kb/s G.711 Codec Standard

7.5.5 64 kb/s DS0 Channels

7.5.6 64 kb/s Packetized Voice

7.5.7 AMR Codec for Cellular

7.5.8 µ-law and a-law

7.6 Digital Video, H.264 and MPEG-4

7.6.1 Digital Video Cameras

7.6.2 Factors Affecting Video Quality

7.6.3 Definition vs. Resolution

7.6.4 Standard Definition, Interlaced and 480i

7.6.5 High Definition, Progressive and 720p

7.6.6 Full HD 1080 and 2K

7.6.7 Ultra HD and 4K

7.6.8 Compression

7.6.9 MPEG

7.6.10 MPEG-4 and H.264

7.7 Digital Images: JPEGs and GIFs

7.7.1 Lossless Compression: PNG

7.8 Digital Images in Email: MIME

7.8.1 UUENCODE, Quoted-Printable and Base-64 Encoding

7.9 Digital Quantities: Number Systems

7.10 Digital Quantities: Binary

7.11 Digital Quantities: Hexadecimal

7.11.1 Common Use for Hexadecimal

7.12 Digital Text

7.12.1 ASCII

7.12.2 Unicode

8 Fundamentals of Voice over IP

8.1 The Big Picture

8.2 Business VoIP Phones

8.3 Voice in IP Packets

8.4 Soft Switches / SIP Servers / Call Managers

8.4.1 Terminal Control

8.4.2 Call Control

8.5 Media Servers: Video Servers

8.5.1 Basic Cable and PVRs

8.5.2 Video on Demand

8.5.3 Content Delivery Networks

8.5.4 Integrated Messaging

8.5.5 More Media Servers

8.6 Gateways

8.6.1 Media Gateways

8.6.2 Signaling Gateways

8.7 Voice over IP over LANs and WANs

8.8 Key VoIP Standards

8.9 Where All of This is Headed: Broadband IP Dial Tone

9 Wireless

9.1 Radio

9.2 Spectrum

9.2.1 The Need for Regulation

9.2.2 Spectrum

9.2.3 Frequency Bands

9.2.4 Capacity vs. Performance Tradeoff

9.2.5 Mobile Communication Bands

9.2.6 Unlicensed Bands

9.2.7 Higher Frequency Bands and 5G

9.3 Mobile Network Components and Operation

9.3.1 0G: The Mobile Phone System

9.3.2 Mobility

9.3.3 Base Station, Cell, Airlink and Handset

9.3.4 Mobile Switch

9.3.5 Backhaul

9.3.6 Registration and Paging

9.3.7 Handoff

9.4 Cellular Radio with Handoffs

9.4.1 1G: The Advanced Mobile Phone System

9.4.2 Cells

9.4.3 Frequency Re-Use

9.4.4 Analog on Radio Channels

9.4.5 AMPS Handoffs and Dial-Up Modems

9.4.6 AMPS Capacity

9.4.7 Sectorization

9.5 Second Generation: Digital Cellular

9.5.1 PCS and GSM

9.5.2 PSTN Phone Calls using the Phone App: "Voice Minutes"

9.6 Mobile Internet: "Data Plan"

9.6.1 Cellphone as a Tethered Modem

9.6.2 Packet Relay to the Internet

9.6.3 Dongles

9.6.4 Smartphone as the Terminal

9.6.5 Billing Plans and Roaming

9.6.6 The Holy Grail of Convergence

9.7 Mobile Operators, MVNOs and Roaming

9.7.1 Mobile Network Operator

9.7.2 Mobile Virtual Network Operator

9.7.3 Roaming

9.8 Spectrum-Sharing Technologies: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDM

9.8.1 FDMA

9.8.2 TDMA

9.8.3 CDMA

9.8.4 OFDM

9.9 3G: CDMA and HSPA

9.9.1 IMT-2000

9.9.2 1X or CDMA2000: IMT-MC

9.9.3 UMTS or W-CDMA: IMT-DS

9.9.4 Data-Optimized Carriers: HSPA and EV-DO

9.9.5 The End of the Standards War

9.10 4G: LTE

9.10.1 Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network Long-Term Evolution

9.10.2 Radio Resource Controller

9.10.3 OFDM

9.10.4 3GPP Standards Committees

9.10.5 Qualcomm Patents

9.11 5G

9.11.1 Below 6 GHz

9.11.2 mmWave

9.12 3.5-GHz Fixed Wireless Broadband Home Internet

9.13 Wi-Fi: 802.11 Wireless LANs

9.13.1 System Components

9.13.2 Service Set ID

9.13.3 Unlicensed Radio Bands

9.13.4 Half-Duplex

9.13.5 802.11b and g

9.13.6 802.11a

9.13.7 Wi-Fi 4: 802.11n

9.13.8 Wi-Fi 5: 802.11ac

9.13.9 Wi-Fi 6: 802.11ax

9.13.10 VoIP over Wireless LANs

9.13.11 Wi-Fi Security

9.14 Communication Satellites

9.14.1 Transponders

9.14.2 Geosynchronous Orbit

9.14.3 Low Earth Orbit

9.14.4 Iridium Next

9.14.5 Orbcomm and Globalstar

9.14.6 Starlink

10 Fiber Optics

10.1 Fiber Basics

10.1.1 Lamdas

10.1.2 Pulses of Light

10.1.3 Attenuation and Dispersion

10.2 Fiber Optics and Fiber Cables

10.2.1 Core

10.2.2 Cladding and Coating

10.2.3 Cables

10.2.4 Fiber Count

10.2.5 Redundancy

10.3 Optical Wavelengths, Bands and Modes

10.3.1 Bands

10.3.2 Multimode and Modal Dispersion

10.3.3 Single-Mode Fiber

10.3.4 Chromatic Dispersion

10.3.5 Polarization-Mode Dispersion

10.4 Wave-Division Multiplexing: CWDM and DWDM

10.4.1 WDM

10.4.2 WDM Multiplexers

10.4.3 Optical Ethernet Paths

10.4.4 Current and Future Capacities

10.5 Optical Ethernet

10.5.1 Point-to-Point Connections

10.5.2 SFP Modules and Connectors

10.5.3 IEEE Standards

10.6 Network Core

10.6.1 Optical Ethernet, RPR and MPLS

10.6.2 SONET and SDH

10.6.3 Fiber Rings

10.7 Metropolitan Area Network

10.7.1 MANs to Office Buildings and Apartment Buildings

10.7.2 MANs to Neighborhoods

10.8 Fiber to the Premise (FTTP, FTTH): PONs

10.8.1 Passive Optical Network (PON)

10.8.2 Active Ethernet

10.8.3 PON Splitter Replaced with Layer 2 Switch

11 Copper

11.1 The Public Switched Telephone Network

11.1.1 Basic Model of the PSTN

11.1.2 Loops

11.1.3 Trunks and Circuit Switching

11.1.4 Remotes

11.1.5 DSL and DSLAMs in Brownfields

11.1.6 Greenfields: PONs on Fiber to the Premise

11.1.7 Active Ethernet to the Premise

11.2 Analog

11.2.1 Analog Signals

11.2.2 Analog Circuits

11.3 Capacity Restrictions

11.3.1 What is Speech?

11.3.2 Do Trees Falling in the Forest Make a Sound?

11.3.3 The Voiceband

11.3.4 Bandwidth

11.3.5 Why Does the Voiceband Stop at 3300 Hz?

11.3.6 Problems With Voiceband Restrictions

11.4 Problems with Analog Transmission

11.4.1 Attenuation and Amplifiers

11.4.2 Electro-Magnetic Interference

11.4.3 Crosstalk

11.4.4 Impulse Noise

11.5 Plain Ordinary Telephone Service (POTS)

11.5.1 Tip and Ring

11.5.4 Microphone and Speaker

11.5.5 Balanced Signaling

11.5.6 Two-Way Simultaneous

11.5.7 Hybrid Transformer

11.5.8 Battery

11.5.9 Lightning Protection

11.5.10 Supervision

11.5.11 Call Progress Tones

11.6 Network Addresses: Telephone Numbers

11.6.1 Dialing Plan

11.6.2 Address Signaling

11.6.3 Pulse Dialing

11.6.4 DTMF: "Touch Tone"

11.6.5 In-Band Signaling

11.6.6 "Hidden" Buttons

11.6.7 Caller ID

11.7 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

11.7.1 DSL: Modems Above The Voiceband

11.7.2 ADSL, SDSL and XDSL

11.8 DSLAMs

11.8.1 Coexistence with POTS

11.9 Fiber to the Neighborhood (FTTN), DSL to the Premise

11.9.1 Loop Length

11.9.2 Remote DSLAMs, OPI and SAC Boxes

11.10 DSL Standards

11.10.1 ADSL2+

11.10.2 VDSL2

11.10.3 VDSL2 Frequency Bands and Profiles

11.10.4 Bonding

11.10.5 Vectoring

11.11 Broadband Carriers: FTTN & Broadband Coax to the Premise

11.11.1 Hybrid Fiber-Coax Network

11.11.2 Frequency Channels

11.11.3 Fiber Serving Area

11.11.4 Television Converters

11.11.5 Modems on CATV Channels

11.11.6 Two-Way Communications Over Shared Access

11.12 DOCSIS and Cable Modem Standards

11.12.1 DOCSIS 1: Contention-Based Channel Sharing

11.12.2 DOCSIS 2: Reserved Time Slots on Channels

11.12.3 DOCSIS 3: CDMA on Channels

11.12.4 DOCSIS 3.1: OFDM

11.12.5 Wider Channels

11.13 T1 and E1

11.13.1 Time-Division Multiplexers

11.13.2 DS1 Frames

11.13.3 CSUs and Repeaters

11.13.4 Synchronization

11.13.5 Applications for T1

11.13.6 E1 Outside North America

11.13.7 TDM on Fiber

11.14 TIA-568 LAN Cable Categories

11.14.1 Category 1 through 5

11.14.2 TIA-568A vs. TIA-568B

11.14.3 Maximum Cable Length and Cabling Architecture

11.14.4 Difference Between Categories

11.14.5 Which Category To Use

12 Telecom Equipment

12.1 Broadband Network Equipment: Routers and Ethernet Switches

12.1.1 Carrier-Grade Core Routers

12.1.2 Carrier-Grade Ethernet Aggregation Switches

12.1.3 Enterprise Core Router

12.1.4 Enterprise Ethernet Switch

12.1.5 Enterprise Small Office Edge Router

12.1.6 Home / Small Business Edge Router with Wi-Fi

12.2 Broadband Customer Premise Equipment

12.2.1 Fiber Terminal

12.2.2 POTS Terminal

12.2.3 Cable and DSL Modems

12.2.4 Wireless Terminals

12.3 Telephone Circuit Switches

12.3.1 Circuit Switching

12.3.2 CO Switches

12.3.3 Line Cards

12.3.4 Digital Switching

12.4 Traditional PBX and Centrex

12.4.1 PBX

12.4.2 PBX Trunks

12.4.3 Digital Telephones: Electronic Business Sets

12.4.4 PBX and PABX

12.4.5 Attendant

12.4.6 Automated Attendant

12.4.7 IVR

12.4.8 Direct Inward Dialing (DID)

12.4.9 Automated Call Distribution (ACD)

12.4.10 Call Centers

12.4.11 Advantages of PBX

12.4.12 Disadvantages of PBX

12.4.13 Centrex

12.4.14 Advantages of Centrex

12.4.15 Disadvantages of Centrex

12.4.16 PBX vs. Centrex

12.4.17 Key Systems

12.5 SIP, Soft Switches, Hosted PBX and IP Centrex

12.5.1 Hard Switches

12.5.2 Soft Switches

12.5.3 SIP

12.5.4 Additional Functions

12.5.5 Location Independence

12.5.6 Customer Premise Softswitch

12.5.7 IP Centrex

12.5.8 Hosted PBX

12.5.9 Cloud-Based Softswitch as a Service

12.6 Gateways

12.6.1 Media Conversion

12.6.2 Signaling Conversion

13 Carriers and Interconnect

13.1 IX: Interconnect for Internet Traffic

13.1.1 Fiber to an AS

13.1.2 Transit

13.1.3 Peering

13.2 Telephone Network Architecture

13.2.1 Access Network

13.2.2 Switching Network

13.2.3 Transmission Network

13.3 PSTN Switching Centers, COs and Toll Centers

13.3.1 Class 5: Central Office

13.3.2 Wire Center

13.3.3 Local Calls

13.3.4 Class 4: Toll Center

13.3.5 Class 1, 2 and 3 Switching Centers

13.3.6 High Usage Trunks

13.4 Implementing Competition: LECs, POPs and IXCs

13.4.1 LECs, ILECs and CLECs

13.4.2 Inter-Exchange Carriers: IXCs

13.4.3 POP: Point of Presence

13.4.4 Switched Access

13.4.5 Equal Access and PIC Codes

13.5 Wireless and CATV Local Exchange Carriers

13.6 CLEC: Collocations and Dark Fiber

13.6.1 Unbundling

13.6.2 Dark Fiber and Dry Copper

13.6.3 Competitive Local Exchange Carrier (CLEC)

13.6.4 Collocations

13.6.5 Advantages

13.6.6 Disadvantages

13.6.7 Application

13.7 SS7

13.7.1 Carrier Interconnect

13.7.2 Call Setup

13.7.3 Out-Of-Band Signaling

13.7.4 Service Control Points and Service Switching Points

13.7.5 Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN)

13.7.6 Switch-Based Call Routing

13.7.7 SS7 In Practice

13.7.8 Residential Service Application Example

13.7.9 Business Service Application Example

14 The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks

14.1 Protocols and Standards

14.1.1 Functions To Be Performed

14.1.2 Monolithic vs. Structured Protocols

14.1.3 Open Systems and Standards

14.2 ISO OSI Reference Model

14.2.1 Layers

14.2.2 Separability of the Layers

14.2.3 Protocol Stacks

14.3 The OSI 7-Layer Model

14.4 Physical Layer: 802.3, DSL, DOCSIS, Wireless

14.5 Data Link Layer: 802 MAC

14.5.1 LANs, Frames and Layer 2 Switches

14.5.2 MAC Frames and MAC Addresses

14.5.3 Other Data Link Protocols

14.6 Network Layer: IP and MPLS

14.6.1 Packet-Switched Networks

14.6.2 Routing Table Updates

14.6.3 MPLS

14.7 Transport Layer: TCP and UDP

14.7.1 Reliability

14.7.2 Port Numbers

14.8 Session Layer: POP, SIP, HTTP

14.8.1 Password Authentication

14.8.2 Authentication Servers

14.8.3 Password Caching

14.8.4 Cookies

14.8.5 Client-Server Sessions

14.8.6 Peer-Peer Sessions

14.9 Presentation Layer: ASCII, Encryption, Codecs

14.9.1 Character Coding

14.9.2 EMail Coding

14.9.3 Codecs

14.9.4 Data Compression

14.9.5 Symmetric Encryption: Private Key

14.9.6 Asymmetric Encryption: Public Key Encryption and Digital Signatures

14.9.7 Example of Separability of Layers

14.9.8 Example of Peer Protocol

14.10 Application Layer: SMTP, HTML, English …

14.10.1 Email

14.10.2 More Application Layer Examples

14.11 Protocol Stacks

14.11.1 Example: Web Surfing

14.11.2 Voice over IP

14.12 Protocol Stack in Operation: Russian Dolls

14.12.1 Communications Flow

14.12.2 Segmentation at Each Layer

14.12.3 Nested Headers: Matryoshka dolls

14.13 Standards Organizations

14.13.1 ISO

14.13.2 DOD and IETF

14.13.3 ITU and Bellcore

14.13.4 TIA and IEEE

14.13.5 ANSI

15 Ethernet, LANs and VLANs

15.1 LAN Basics

15.1.1 Bus Topology

15.1.2 Broadcast Domain

15.1.3 Balanced Configuration

15.1.4 Collision Domain

15.1.5 MAC Address

15.1.6 Communication of MAC Frames

15.2 Ethernet and 802 Standards

15.2.1 IEEE 802 Standards

15.2.2 Ethernet vs. 802.3

15.2.3 Token Ring

15.2.4 Baseband LAN

15.2.5 10BASE-5

15.2.6 10BASE-2

15.2.7 10BASE-T

15.2.8 100BASE-T

15.2.9 1000BASE-T

15.2.10 Optical Ethernet

15.3 LAN Cables and Categories

15.3.1 Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

15.3.2 Shielding

15.3.3 TIA-568 LAN Cable Categories

15.3.4 TIA-568A vs. TIA-568B

15.3.5 Maximum Cable Length and Cabling Architecture

15.3.6 Difference Between Categories

15.3.7 Which Category To Use

15.4 LAN Switches: Layer 2 Switches

15.4.1 Hardware

15.4.2 Purpose and Operation

15.4.3 Buffers

15.4.4 Frame Forwarding

15.4.5 Broadcast Domain Defined by Switch

15.5 VLANs

15.5.1 Broadcast Domains Defined in Software

15.5.2 Routing Between VLANs

15.5.3 Header Tag

15.5.4 Traffic Management and Network Security

16 IP Networks, Routers and Addresses

16.1 Definition of Network

16.2 IPv4 Address Classes

16.2.1 Packets and Network Addresses

16.2.2 Historical Network Classes

16.2.3 Class A, B and C

16.2.4 Network ID and Host ID

16.2.5 Class D and E

16.2.6 Dotted-Decimal Notation

16.3 Subnets and Classless Inter-Domain Routing

16.4 DHCP

16.4.1 Dynamic Addresses for Clients

16.4.2 Static Addresses and DNS for Servers

16.4.3 DHCP Client - Server Communications

16.4.4 DHCP Message Exchange

16.4.5 Lease Expiry

16.4.6 DHCP to Assign Static Addresses

16.5 Assigning Subnets to Broadcast Domains

16.6 IP Network: Routers Connected with Point-to-Point Circuits

16.6.1 Broadcast Domain at Each Location

16.6.2 Edge Router at Each Location

16.6.3 Default Gateway

16.6.4 Packet Creation

16.6.5 Packet Transmission from the Source

16.6.6 IP to MAC Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

16.6.7 Packet Routing

16.6.8 Overbooking & Bandwidth on Demand

16.7 Routers and Customer Edge

16.7.1 Customer Edge Device

16.7.2 Router Connects Broadcast Domains

16.7.3 Routing

16.7.4 Denying Communications

16.7.5 Packet Filtering

16.7.6 Port Filtering

16.7.7 Firewall

16.8 Public and Private IPv4 Addresses

16.8.1 Public Addresses

16.8.2 Regional Internet Registries

16.8.3 Unassigned or Private Addresses

16.9 Network Address Translation

16.9.1 Network Address Translator

16.9.2 Outbound

16.9.3 Inbound

16.9.4 Advantages of NAT

16.9.5 Implementation

16.10 TCP and UDP

16.11 IPv6

16.11.1 Expanded Addressing Capabilities

16.11.2 Header Simplification

16.11.3 Improved Support for Extensions and Options

16.11.4 Support for Traffic Management

16.11.5 IPv6 Packet Format

16.12 IPv6 Address Allocation and Address Types

16.12.1 Internet Registry Identification

16.12.2 Sites and Global Routing Prefix

16.12.3 Interface ID

16.12.4 Subnet ID

16.12.5 Allocation

16.12.6 Subnet Prefix

16.12.7 IPv6 Address Types

17 MPLS and Carrier Networks

17.1 Introduction

17.1.1 Overbooking

17.1.2 Congestion, Contention and Packet Loss

17.1.3 Class of Service (CoS)

17.2 Carrier Packet Network Basics

17.2.1 Provider Edge (PE) and Customer Edge (CE)

17.2.2 Access

17.2.3 Advantages of Packet Networks

17.3 Service Level Agreements

17.3.1 Traffic Profile

17.3.2 Contract

17.3.3 Business Decisions

17.3.4 Enforcement: Out of Profile Traffic

17.3.5 Abusive Applications

17.4 Provider Equipment at the Customer Premise

17.5 Virtual Circuit Technologies

17.5.1 IP Routing vs. Centralized Control

17.5.2 Traffic Classes

17.5.3 Virtual Circuits

17.5.4 SVCs and PVCs

17.5.5 Ingress Device: Packet Classification

17.5.6 Forwarding Based on Class Number

17.5.7 Differentiated Services

17.6 MPLS

17.6.1 MPLS vs. TCP

17.6.2 Forwarding Equivalence Class

17.6.3 Labels and Label Stacking

17.6.4 Label-Switched Path

17.6.5 IP User-Network Interface

17.6.6 Label Edge Routers

17.6.7 Label-Switching Router Operation

17.7 MPLS VPN Service for Business Customers

17.7.1 Private Network Service

17.7.2 Virtual Private Network (VPN)

17.7.3 Internet VPNs

17.7.4 MPLS VPN

17.8 MPLS and Diff-Serv to Support Class of Service

17.8.1 DS Codepoints

17.8.2 Assured Forwarding and Expedited Forwarding

17.9 MPLS for Integrated Access

17.9.1 SIP Trunking, VPN and Internet on One Access

17.10 MPLS for Traffic Aggregation

17.10.1 Label Stacking

17.11 M is for Multiprotocol: Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS)

18 Wrapping Up

18.1 Technology Deployment Steps

18.2 Requirements Specification

18.3 High-Level Design

18.4 Technology Roundup

18.5 Review: Circuits and Services

18.6 Private Network

18.7 Carrier IP Services

18.7.1 Five Main Flavors

18.7.2 Retail Internet Service

18.7.3 Wholesale Internet Service: Transit and Peering

18.7.4 Wireless IP Services

18.7.5 MPLS VPN Service

18.7.6 SIP Trunking Service

18.7.7 Physically Connecting

18.7.8 Advantages

18.7.9 Fiber Access

18.8 The Future

18.8.1 The IP-PSTN

18.8.2 IP Dial Tone

18.8.3 Services

18.8.4 Sea Change

Appendix A Modulation Techniques

A.1 Modulation of Carrier Frequencies

A.2 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)

A.3 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)

A.4 Phase Shift Keying (PSK)

A.4.1 Baud Rate vs. Bit Rate

A.5 Quadrature PSK (QPSK)

A.6 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

A.7 Constraints on Achievable Bit Rate

Appendix B Legacy Channelized Transmission Systems

B.1 The Digital Hierarchy: Legacy Channelized Transmission Speeds

B.1.1 Kilo, Mega, Giga, Tera

B.1.2 DS0

B.1.3 DS1 and E1

B.1.4 DS2

B.1.5 DS3

B.1.6 STM and SDH

B.2 Digital Carrier Systems: Legacy Transmission Technologies

B.2.1 Technologies

B.2.2 Carrier Systems

B.2.3 T1

B.2.4 T3 and Bit-Interleaved Multiplexing

B.2.5 SONET and Byte-Interleaved Multiplexing

B.2.6 SDH

B.2.7 Line Speed vs. Technology

B.3 Framing

B.3.1 Synchronous Time-Division Multiplexing

B.3.2 Framing and Transmission Frames

B.3.3 DS1 Frame

B.3.4 STS-1 (DS3) Frames

B.3.5 SONET Optical Carrier Frames

B.3.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Channels


B.4.1 Basic Rate Interface (BRI)

B.4.2 Obsolescence of BRI

B.4.3 Primary Rate Interface (PRI)

B.4.4 PRI Physical Connection

B.4.5 T1 vs. PRI

Appendix C All About T1

C.1 T1 History and Applications

C.2 T1 Circuit Components

C.3 Operation

C.4 T1 Framing

C.4.1 Superframe Format

C.4.2 ESF

C.5 Pulses and Line Code: AMI

C.5.1 Repeaters

C.6 Synchronization: Bit-Robbing

C.6.1 56 kb/s for Data

C.7 B8ZS and 64 kb/s Clear Channels

C.8 How T1 Is Provided

C.8.1 HDSL

C.9 Fractional T1, DACS and Cross-Connects

C.10 Subrate Data Circuits 1.2 kb/s to 56 kb/s

C.10.1 CSUs, DSUs and CSU/DSUs

Appendix D Voice Services and Jargon

D.1 Local Voice Services

D.1.1 POTS and Party Lines

D.1.2 CLASS Services

D.1.3 Local Measured Service

D.1.4 Public Coin Telephone Service

D.1.5 Directory Services

D.1.6 Business Services

D.1.7 Access

D.2 Long Distance Voice Services

D.2.1 Operator Services

D.2.2 Foreign Exchange

D.2.3 OPX: Off-Premise Extension

D.2.4 Tie Line

D.2.5 Private Networks

D.2.6 WATS

D.2.7 AIN Services

D.2.8 Virtual Private Voice Networks

Appendix E Legacy Datacom Technologies

E.1 "Asynchronous": Start/Stop/Parity

E.1.1 Asynchronous Communications

E.1.2 Framing: Start and Stop Bits

E.1.3 Parity Checking

E.2 X.25: Packet-Switching using Virtual Circuits

E.2.1 X.25 Network Structure and Operation

E.2.2 Reliable Network Service: Guaranteed Delivery

E.2.3 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless Network Service

E.3 Frame Relay

E.3.1 Elimination of a Layer of Software

E.3.2 Unreliable Service

E.3.3 Network Structure and Operation

E.3.4 No Guarantees for Voice


E.4.1 Future-Proof Technology (Not)

E.4.2 ATM Cells

E.4.3 Service Classes

Appendix F Acronyms and Abbreviations

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