Telecom 101

Telecommunications Textbook
TCO CTA Certification Self-Study Guide
Reference Handbook

Telecommunications training book:
• Fundamentals of Telecommunications,
• Understanding Data Communications,
• Understanding IP and Networking
Packed with information, authoritative, up to date, covering all major topics, Telecom 101 is an invaluable study guide and day-to-day reference.
Telecom 101 is based on the famous telecommunications training course
Course 101 Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineers.

More info - pricing, online ordering       Free Chapter 1 eBook    

Telecom 101:
To keep your purchase cost as low as possible, three books:
Fundamentals of Telecommunications,
Understanding Data Communications, and
Understanding IP and Networking
are not sold separately, but bound into a single volume Telecom 101, with 430 pages, 175 diagrams and a full index, all for one low price.

Bonus! Each printed Telecom 101 comes with a free searchable electronic version that can be loaded on a Windows laptop or desktop. The fully-hyperlinked floating table of contents beside the text provides pinpoint navigation directly to the topic you are interested in. Ideal for study at home or immediate reference in buzzword-filled meetings.

An invaluable reference
The material covers telecom, datacom and networking from A-Z, organized in logical chapters covering all major topics, and written in our signature "telecom for non-engineers" style. It will be an invaluable day-to-day handbook, either on its own, or to complement instructor and video training.

Up to date
The second edition, published 2004, is completely revised and updated, with complete coverage of the fundamentals plus up-to-date information on Gigabit Ethernet, CDMA and 3G cellular, DSL and Cable, Wireless LANs, IP, Voice over IP, IP VPNs and more.

Value Pricing
If sold separately, the price for these three books would be:
Fundamentals of Telecommunications: $118, plus
Understanding Data Communications: $118, plus
Understanding IP and Networking: $118
for a total of US$354 for all three books if purchased separately.

You can get all three books bound in one volume called Telecom 101 for the low price of US$179.
, you get as a bonus the electronic version of Telecom 101, a US$49 value, free!

Compare this to hunting down and paying hundreds of dollars for multiple books by different authors that may or may not cover what you need to know - in plain English - and you'll agree this is a very attractive deal.

CTA Study Manual
Telecom 101 covers the material needed to pass the Telecommunications Certification Organization Certified Telecommunications Analyst (CTA) certification.

Hurry! The print run is limited. Order today to avoid disappointment.

Table of Contents
Following is a chapter-by-chapter outline Teracomís textbooks.  The three books, Fundamentals of Telecommunications, Understanding Data Communications and Understanding IP and Networking are bound together in one volume called Telecom 101. 

Looking through this outline, youíll see that many of the chapters are actually self-contained references on subject areas such as telephony, T1, LANs, Voice over IP and many more.

Instead of having to purchase multiple books from different authors to explain each of these topics, you get them all, bound in a single volume, in a consistent style and quality, for one low price.  
Order today to obtain this invaluable reference!

Chapter 1 is an introduction. We discuss the approach taken in organizing the topics, and suggestions for how to use the material. This chapter contains an initial framework for understanding telecom circuits and services, and introductory terminology, jargon and buzzwords.

1.1 Our Approach
1.2 How the Text is Organized
1.3 How to Use This Text
1.4 The Three Answers
      1.4.1 Answer Number 1: Money
      1.4.2 Answer Number 2: History
      1.4.3 Answer Number 3: It's All Pretty Much the Same
1.5 Telecommunications Circuits from the User's Point of View
      1.5.1 Access Circuits
      1.5.2 Network Connection
      1.5.3 Billing Plan
1.6 The Network "Cloud"
1.7 Telecom Circuits from the Phone Company's Point of View
      1.7.1 Access Network
      1.7.2 Switching Centers
      1.7.3 Transmission Network
1.8 What's Next

It all starts with the PSTN and Plain Ordinary Telephone Service (POTS). This chapter lays a strong foundation with the basics of telephony: loops, trunks and circuit switching... fundamentals that are key to understanding of newer technologies and services. We'll also introduce modems and DSL.

2.1 History of Telecommunications
      2.1.1 Invention of the Telephone
      2.1.2 Local Phone Companies and the Bell System
      2.1.3 The Rest of the World
2.2 PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network
      2.2.1 Basic Model of the PSTN
      2.2.2 Loops
      2.2.3 Remotes
      2.2.4 Trunks and Circuit-Switching
2.3 Analog Circuits
      2.3.1 What Analog Means
      2.3.2 Analog Circuits
2.4 Capacity Restrictions on the Loop
      2.4.1 What is Speech?
      2.4.2 The Voiceband
      2.4.3 Bandwidth
2.5 Problems with Analog Transmission
      2.5.1 Attenuation and Amplifiers
      2.5.2 Noise
2.6 Plain Ordinary Telephone Service
      2.6.1 Twisted Pair
      2.6.2 Components of a Telephone
      2.6.3 Supervision
      2.6.4 Call Progress Tones
2.7 Network Addresses: Telephone Numbers
      2.7.1 Area Codes
      2.7.2 Pulse Signaling
      2.7.3 DTMF Address Signaling
2.8 SS7: Signaling System 7
      2.8.1 AIN: Advanced Intelligent Network
2.9 Modems
      2.9.1 Voiceband Modems
      2.9.2 Bits per Hertz?
      2.9.3 DSL: "Digital Subscriber Lines"
      2.9.4 DSL Equipment
2.10 Summary


A practical overview of the telecommunications industry: service providers and alliances, competitive forces, structure and regulation; resellers, IXCs, LECs and CLECs.

3.1 US Domestic Telcos
      3.1.1 LECs and LATAs: Local Exchange Carriers
      3.1.2 IXCs: Inter-Exchange Carriers
      3.1.3 Resellers
3.2 Canadian Telephone Companies
3.3 Trunks and Switching Centers
3.4 Network Access for Long-Distance
      3.4.1 POP: Point of Presence
      3.4.2 Equal Access
3.5 CLECs: Competitive Local Exchange Carriers
      3.5.1 DSL from CLECs
      3.5.2 Voice over DSL

This chapter will give you a real understanding of what "digital" means, and how it is implemented. We'll explain what a "DS0" is, and take a practical tour of digital circuits, including T1, T3, SONET and ISDN. At a high level, we'll see how voice, data and video can be integrated.

4.1 Why Digital?
      4.1.1 Multiplexing
      4.1.2 Noise Performance
      4.1.3 Storage and Processing
      4.1.4 Integration vs. Convergence
4.2 Analog and Digital: What do we really mean?
      4.2.1 Analog
      4.2.2 Bandwidth: Analog Circuits
      4.2.3 Digital
      4.2.4 Bandwidth: Digital Circuits
4.3 Continuous vs. Discrete Signals
      4.3.1 Continuous and Analog
      4.3.2 Discrete and Digital
4.4 Voice Digitization (Analog-Digital Conversion)
      4.4.1 Quantization
      4.4.2 Sampling
      4.4.3 Coding
      4.4.4 End to End: Analog-Digital-Analog
      4.4.5 Quantization Errors
4.5 DS0: Voice Digitization on the PSTN
      4.5.1 Quantization: 256 Levels
      4.5.2 Sampling: 8,000 Samples per Second
      4.5.3 Coding: 8 Bits Per Sample
      4.5.4 The DS0 Rate
4.6 The Digital Hierarchy: Standard Line Speeds
      4.6.1 DS1
      4.6.2 DS3
      4.6.3 STM
4.7 Technologies: Digital Carrier Systems
      4.7.1 T1
      4.7.2 T3: "Asynchronous" DS3 Multiplexing
      4.7.3 SONET: Synchronous DS3 Multiplexing
      4.7.4 SDH
      4.7.5 T1 vs. DS1 and T3 vs. DS3
4.8 ISDN
      4.8.1 ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
      4.8.2 ISDN Primary Rate Interface (PRI)
      4.8.3 Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN)
      4.8.4 PBXs Trunks on T1 vs. ISDN PRI
4.9 International Digital Hierarchies
4.10 Using Digital Circuits: Applications
      4.10.1 Voice on Digital Circuits
      4.10.2 Voice Compression
      4.10.3 Data Applications
      4.10.4 Video Applications and MPEG
4.11 Summary: Integration: Voice, Video, Data

Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) and digital carrier systems are the technologies at the heart of telecommunications networks. We'll provide you with a basic understanding of how transmission systems work, both over copper wires and over fiber, and an overview of SONET and optical networking. We'll explain the "network cloud": how circuits are actually provided by carriers, the difference between multiplexers, switches and routers and what services these are used for.

5.1 Time Division Multiplexing
      5.1.1 Channelized or "Synchronous" TDM
      5.1.2 "Statistical" TDM or "Bandwidth on Demand"
5.2 Channelized TDM: Channels and Framing
      5.2.1 Subrate Multiplexing
5.3 Anatomy of a Circuit
      5.3.1 Access Circuits
      5.3.2 Network Connection
      5.3.3 Billing Plan
5.4 Common Carriers' Transmission Networks
      5.4.1 The Network "Cloud"
5.5 Fiber Optics
      5.5.1 Representing Bits on Fiber
      5.5.2 Fiber Construction
      5.5.3 Redundancy and Protection: Rings
      5.5.4 Dark Fiber
5.6 SONET: "Backbone" Transmission Networks
      5.6.1 SONET and the Optical Carrier
      5.6.2 SONET Rings
      5.6.3 DWDM: Dense Wave Division Multiplexing
      5.6.4 Next: OC192 Fiber Access
5.7 How Circuits are Actually Provided
      5.7.1 Inside the Cloud
5.8 Network Equipment
      5.8.1 Types and Uses of Network Equipment
      5.8.2 Multiplexers
      5.8.3 Switches
      5.8.4 Routers
      5.8.5 ATM Switches or ATM Routers?
5.9 Summary

This chapter covers T1 technology and application in detail. We'll cover T1's origins, concepts such as framing and AMI line codes, and understand what repeaters are for and why this is superior to analog. We'll also cover B8ZS and clear channels, HDSL, cross-connects, fractional T1 and CSU/DSUs.

6.1 T1 History and Current Applications
6.2 Basic T1 Circuit Components
6.3 T1 Framing
      6.3.1 Superframe Format
      6.3.2 ESF
6.4 Line Code: AMI
6.5 Repeaters
6.6 Synchronization: Bit-Robbing
      6.6.1 56 kb/s for Data
6.7 B8ZS and 64 kb/s Clear Channels
6.8 How T1 Is Provided
      6.8.1 HDSL
6.9 Fractional T1 and Cross-Connects
6.10 Subrate Data Circuits 1.2 kb/s to 56 kb/s
6.10.1 CSUs, DSUs and CSU/DSUs


This chapter sorts out different radio technologies, starting with the basics of cellular networks, cellular technologies including analog, PCS and third generation; the pros and cons of different approaches like CDMA, TDMA and GSM; 3G cellular, and finishes with an overview of satellite communications.

7.1 Radio Transmission
7.2 Mobile Networks
7.3 Cellular
      7.3.1 Cells and Frequency Re-use
      7.3.2 AMPS: Analog Cellular
      7.3.3 Problems with AMPS
7.4 PCS: Personal Communication Services
      7.4.1 PCS Frequency Bands
      7.4.2 Wireless PBXs
7.5 Digital Cellular: Voice Communications
7.6 Sharing the Radio Bands
      7.6.1 AMPS
      7.6.2 TDMA and GSM
      7.6.3 CDMA
7.7 3G Cellular
7.8 Satellite-Based Services
      7.8.1 Geosynchronous Satellites
      7.8.2 Direct-To-Home Television
      7.8.3 VSAT
      7.8.4 Low Earth Orbit

Here, we provide a practical explanation of different types of equipment. We'll sort out switches, PBXs, ACDs, voice mail and voice response systems, and understand Call Centers, Computer-Telephony Integration (CTI) and Application Service Providers (ASPs).

8.1 Telephone Switches
      8.1.1 PBXs
      8.1.2 DID: Direct Inward Dialing
      8.1.3 Centrex
8.2 Virtual Private Voice Networks
8.3 Computer-Telephony Integration
      8.3.1 Voice Mail
      8.3.2 IVR: Interactive Voice Response System
      8.3.3 ACD: Automated Call Distributor
      8.3.4 Call Centers
      8.3.5 ASP: Application Service Provider

This chapter provides a summary and overview of voice communication services from carriers, and explains jargon like VPNs, WATS and AIN.

9.1 Local Voice Services
      9.1.1 POTS and Party Lines
      9.1.2 CLASS Services
      9.1.3 Local Measured Service
      9.1.4 Public Coin Telephone Service
      9.1.5 Directory Services
      9.1.6 Business Services
      9.1.7 Access
9.2 Long Distance Voice Services
      9.2.1 Operator Services
      9.2.2 Foreign Exchange
      9.2.3 OPX: Off-Premise Extension
      9.2.4 Private Networks
      9.2.5 WATS
      9.2.6 AIN Services
      9.2.7 Virtual Private Voice Networks


We'll start off on the right foot with a solid grounding in data communications and networking basics, introducing and defining key concepts explored in subsequent chapters. We'll start at the beginning, reviewing the components of a data circuit: DTEs, DCEs and physical connections, then explore practical examples of circuits and networks, allowing you to categorize and compare the different types of equipment and circuit configurations.

1.1 Information Theory
1.2 Data Circuit Model
1.3 DTE: Data Terminal Equipment
      1.3.1 Dumb Terminals
      1.3.2 Intelligent Terminals
1.4 Analog and Digital Data Circuits
      1.4.1 Analog Data Circuits
      1.4.2 Unloaded Circuits
      1.4.3 Wet vs. Dry Circuits
      1.4.4 Broadband or Wideband Analog
      1.4.5 Digital Circuits
      1.4.6 Fiber: Analog or Digital?
1.5 DCE: Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment
      1.5.1 Analog DCE: Modems
      1.5.2 Digital DCE: CSUs, DSUs, and More
1.6 Point-to-Point Circuits
      1.6.1 Parallel
      1.6.2 Serial
1.7 Multidrop Circuits
      1.7.1 IBM Mainframe Circuits
      1.7.2 Polling
      1.7.3 Cable Television Distribution
1.8 LANs: Local Area Networks
1.9 Wide Area Networks
      1.9.1 Carriers' Networks
      1.9.2 Basic Components of a WAN
      1.9.3 Routers, Network Addresses and Packets
1.10 TCP/IP for Networking

Here, we'll take the time to cover the fundamentals, ensuring that you have a solid foundation on which to build. We'll show how data is formatted for transmission, including the older concepts of "asynchronous" and "synchronous", and today's crucial concepts of frames and packets.

2.1 Basics
      2.1.1 Bits
      2.1.2 Bytes
      2.1.3 Words
      2.1.4 Control and Data
2.2 Number Systems
      2.2.1 Decimal
      2.2.2 Binary
      2.2.3 Hexadecimal
      2.2.4 Common Use for Hexadecimal
2.3 "Asynchronous"
      2.3.1 Coding, Framing and Error Control
      2.3.2 ASCII Code Set
      2.3.3 Extended ASCII
      2.3.4 EBCDIC
      2.3.5 Framing: Start and Stop Bits
      2.3.6 Parity Checking
      2.3.7 No Parity
2.4 Frames: "Synchronous"
      2.4.1 Exchanging Frames
      2.4.2 Components of a Frame
      2.4.3 CRC: Cyclic Redundancy Checking
2.5 Packets
2.6 Packets vs. Frames
2.7 IP Packets

Understand how modems transmit 1s and 0s over analog circuits. We'll explain the techniques all modems use, jargon like baud rate and half duplex, and review current voiceband modem standards and what connection speeds to expect.

3.1 Data over the PSTN
      3.1.1 Recap: Circuit-Switching and the PSTN
      3.1.2 Recap: The Voiceband
      3.1.3 Why Not Use Pulses?
3.2 Representing Data in the Voiceband
      3.2.1 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)
      3.2.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
      3.2.3 Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
      3.2.4 Quadrature PSK
      3.2.5 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
      3.2.6 Trellis-Coded Modulation
      3.2.7 Theoretical Maximum
3.3 Modulation Summary
3.4 Voiceband Modem Standards
      3.4.1 V.34 Modems
      3.4.2 "56K" Modems
3.5 Negotiation and Handshaking
3.6 Modem Control and the AT Command Set
3.7 Modem Jargon and Buzzwords
      3.7.1 Baud vs. Bits/Second
      3.7.2 Half-Duplex and Full-Duplex
3.8 Factors Limiting Modem Data Rates
      3.8.1 Background Noise
      3.8.2 Crosstalk and NEXT
      3.8.3 Harmonics
      3.8.4 A/D Conversion Noise
      3.8.5 Voice Compression
      3.8.6 Impulse Noise: Spikes

An in-depth overview of high-capacity or "broadband" technologies: DSL and Cable modems, and discuss the age-old question: which is faster? We'll also explore how data over digital cellular works and how accessing the Internet is the real growth area for Third Generation cellular.

4.1 DSL
      4.1.1 DSL Modulation Techniques
      4.1.2 Loop Length Limitations
      4.1.3 ADSL vs. SDSL vs. XDSL
      4.1.4 DSLAMs and Co-Location
      4.1.5 "Always On"
      4.1.6 Advantages of DSL
4.2 Cable Modems
      4.2.1 Cable TV Network Architecture
      4.2.2 Frequency Division Multiplexing
      4.2.3 Modems on Cable TV: Challenges
4.3 Which Is Faster, Cable Modem Or DSL?
4.4 Data over Analog Cellular
4.5 Data over Digital Cellular
      4.5.1 Recap: Digital Cellular for Voice
      4.5.2 Communicating Data Instead of Voice
      4.5.3 Navigation Servers
      4.5.4 WAP and XML
      4.5.5 3G

LANs: Local Area Networks are the technology used to connect computers - and maybe in the future telephones - inside the building. You'll learn about Ethernet and Token Ring, cabling, bridges and switches, Gigabit Ethernet, how to connect LANs locally, and, as a preview of the networking chapters, how to interconnect LANs using routers and TCP/IP.

5.1 Categories of Cables
5.2 Bus Topology
      5.2.1 Network Interface Cards
      5.2.2 Frames and LAN Addresses
      5.2.3 What Makes a LAN a LAN
      5.2.4 Access Control: CSMA-CD
5.3 802.3 and Ethernet
      5.3.1 Ethernet Issues
5.4 Evolution of Ethernet
      5.4.1 10Base5
      5.4.2 10Base2
      5.4.3 10BaseT and Hubs
5.5 Fast Ethernet
      5.5.1 100BaseT
      5.5.2 Half-Duplex vs. Full Duplex
      5.5.3 100BaseVG
5.6 Gigabit Ethernet
      5.6.1 "Gig-E" Applications
5.7 802.5 / IBM Token-Passing Ring
      5.7.1 Token Ring Issues
5.8 Repeaters and Bridges
      5.8.1 Old-Style Bridged LANs
5.9 Ethernet Switches
5.10 Interconnecting LANs with Routers


We start by building a foundation for understanding networking by defining what needs to be done, and putting in place a structure for discussing how systems can interoperate via protocol stacks. We'll review the ISO Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) 7-layer reference model, give examples and explanations of protocols like SMTP, ASCII, HTTP, TCP, IP, Frame Relay and T1 used for each layer, and practical insight into how a protocol stack works.

1.1 Choices for Connecting Systems
1.2 Protocols and Standards
1.3 ISO OSI Reference Model
1.4 OSI 7-Layer Model
1.5 Physical Layer
      1.5.1 Physical Layer: Digital Technology Roundup
1.6 Data Link Layer
1.7 Network Layer
1.8 Transport Layer
1.9 Session Layer
      1.9.1 Cookies: Session Restoration
      1.9.2 Navigation and Profiling
1.10 Presentation Layer
1.10.1 Encryption
1.11 Application Layer
1.12 Protocol Stack in Operation
1.13 OSI Summary
1.13.1 Separability of the Layers
1.13.2 Peer Protocols
1.14 Standards Organizations

Obtain concise, detailed understanding of how IP addressing works: IP address classes, how IP addresses are assigned, subnet masks, how routers route, dynamic and static addresses, public and private addresses, Network Address Translators so you can connect multiple computers to one Internet connection, and IP version 6.

2.1 IP Version 4
      2.1.1 Dotted-Decimal Notation
      2.1.2 Address Classes
2.2 Routing on the Last 100 Meters
      2.2.1 Subnets
      2.2.2 Subnet Mask
      2.2.3 Making the Route Decision
      2.2.4 Implementing the Route Decision
2.3 Dynamic IP Addresses
2.4 Private IP Addresses
2.5 Network Address Translation
2.6 IP Version 6 (IPv6)
      2.6.1 IPv6 Notation and Address Classes

The best way to understand routers and networks is with private networks, composed of routers connected with dedicated lines like T1s. We'll understand the functions routers perform, edge routers and packet filtering, and practical guidelines on how to order circuits and deal with carriers.

3.1 Chapter Roadmap
3.2 Applications on a High-Capacity Service
3.3 Statistical TDM Concepts
      3.3.1 Overbooking
      3.3.2 Addressing
      3.3.3 Routers and ATM Switches
3.4 Statistical TDM in Practice
3.5 T1 WAN: Integrated Data, Voice, Video
3.6 Edge Routers
      3.6.1 Routing vs. Bridging
      3.6.2 Packet Filtering
3.7 Case Study T1-based LAN-LAN WAN
      3.7.1 Private Network Advantages and Disadvantages
3.8 Cost Analysis: Dedicated Lines
3.9 Dealing with Carriers
3.10 Troubleshooting
3.10.1 Fault Sectionalization
3.10.2 Bit Error Rate Testing (BERT)
3.10.3 In-Service Monitoring

Bandwidth-on-demand or "packet-switched" services have strong cost and flexibility advantages over dedicated lines for networks. This chapter contains a comprehensive overview of concepts like Virtual Circuits, packet switching, Frame Relay and ATM. We'll focus on the very popular new VPN services offered by carriers, understand why "IP over ATM" came about, and discuss practical issues like quality of service, and the use of carriers' IP services vs. tunneling and VPNs over the Internet.

4.1 Bandwidth on Demand Service Concepts
      4.1.1 Advantages
      4.1.2 Disadvantages
      4.1.3 Virtual Circuits
      4.1.4 Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs)
      4.1.5 Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs)
      4.1.6 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless
      4.1.7 Reliable vs. Unreliable Network Service
4.2 X.25
      4.2.1 X.25 Network and Packets
      4.2.2 Packet Switches vs. Routers
      4.2.3 PADs: Network Interface Devices
      4.2.4 X.25 Protocol Stack
      4.2.5 X.25 Performance
4.3 Frame Relay
      4.3.1 DLCIs and PVCs
      4.3.2 Unreliable Service
      4.3.3 TCP/IP and Frame Relay
      4.3.4 Frame Relay Performance
      4.3.5 Committed Information Rate (CIR)
      4.3.6 Burst Information Rate (BIR)
4.4 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
      4.4.1 ATM Promises
      4.4.2 ATM Reality
      4.4.3 ATM Cells
      4.4.4 ATM Protocol Stack
      4.4.5 VLAN Services
      4.4.6 ATM: QoS and Capacity Management
      4.4.7 ATM Service Classes
      4.4.8 Traffic Contract and Traffic Policing
4.5 Broadband IP
      4.5.1 IP over ATM: The Best of Both Worlds?
      4.5.2 IP VPN or Extranet Services
4.6 Internet VPNs: Tunneling

This chapter provides a concise, practical explanation of Voice Over IP, and sorts out the hype from the reality. Numerous different scenarios are explained, ranging from talking into your computer to VoIP over LANs in an office building and soft switches.

5.1 Voice over Bandwidth on Demand Services?
      5.1.1 Factors Affecting Quality
5.2 Flavors of Voice over IP
      5.2.1 The Hobbyist Scenario
      5.2.2 Inter Exchange Carriers Providing VoIP
      5.2.3 Voice over IP Over a Dedicated Line
      5.2.4 Voice Over IP on LANs In-Building
      5.2.5 Next: Voice over IP between VoIP Buildings
5.3 Soft Switches
5.4 Etherphones vs. Soft Phones
5.5 Voice over IP for POTS?

Let's not forget the Internet! This chapter provides a concise explanation of the Internet, reviewing past and present, ISPs, who pays for it, TCP and IP, SMTP and MIME for e-mail, HTML, Web servers and browsers, the Domain Name System and more. We'll complete the picture with practical guidelines for connecting.

6.1 Internet History
      6.1.1 Philosophy Behind the Internet
      6.1.2 How Al Gore Invented the Internet
      6.1.3 Historical Limitations
6.2 Internet Basics
      6.2.1 Globally-Meaningful Network Addresses
      6.2.2 Connectionless Network Service
6.3 Internet Today: Internet Service Providers
      6.3.1 Who Pays For the Internet?
      6.3.2 Resellers vs. Carriers
6.4 Commonly Used Internet Protocols
      6.4.1 Network Protocols
      6.4.2 Transport Protocols
      6.4.3 Application Protocols
6.5 TCP: Transmission Control Protocol
6.6 Domain Name System
      6.6.1 Domain Name Resolution
6.7 MIME: E-Mailing Multimedia Files
      6.7.1 Binary vs. Text
      6.7.2 Transformations
      6.7.3 Quoted-Printable and Base-64 Encoding
6.8 World Wide Web
      6.8.1 Servers and Clients
      6.8.2 Hyperlinks and URLs
6.9 HTML and HTTP
6.10 Web Browsers
6.11 Intranets
6.12 Accessing the Internet: Home Connections
6.13 Access for an Organization
6.14 Current Internet Issues
      6.14.1 IP Addressing
      6.14.2 Router Table Update Overhead
      6.14.3 Dial-Up Access
      6.14.4 Quality of Service

We round out the story with a top-down view of mainstream strategies and solutions for enterprise networking, with practical templates for network designs you can put to immediate use.

7.1 Enterprise Networking
      7.1.1 Requirements Checklist
7.2 Designing A WAN: Design Methodology
7.3 Review: Data Services for WANs
      7.3.1 Combinations of Access and Network Service
7.4 Practical WAN Solutions
      7.4.1 Private Network
      7.4.2 Frame Relay
      7.4.3 TCP/IP Over Frame Relay
      7.4.4 IP over ATM: Internet or Extranet
      7.4.5 Combinations of IP and ATM
      7.4.6 Hybrid Design


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